What is Hybridisation: Definition and 25 Discussions

In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. For example, in a carbon atom which forms four single bonds the valence-shell s orbital combines with three valence-shell p orbitals to form four equivalent sp3 mixtures which are arranged in a tetrahedral arrangement around the carbon to bond to four different atoms. Hybrid orbitals are useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties and are symmetrically disposed in space. Usually hybrid orbitals are formed by mixing atomic orbitals of comparable energies.

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  1. robynmc

    Are Electrons Transferring Energy in Hybridisation Orbitals?

    Please help, very lost in khan academy! 1)The sp1, sp2 and sp3 hybridisation states look like dimensional i.e. a line, a plane and a xyz coordinate system, but I don't remember my resource explicitly stating this as the case. Is it a safe assumption/intuition? Or more objectively the case - not...
  2. V

    Hybridisation Doubt: When Does it Take Place and When Not?

    There is an example given in my textbook showing the structure of BF3. In it, they have hybridised the orbitals of B to sp2, but not of F. It's written sp2-p overlapping. Why isn't flourine also hybridised, seeing it has 3 lone pairs and 1 bond pair, it could have sp3 hybridisation? Also, in...
  3. A

    Hybridization, Antibonding Orbitals and All that Jazz

    This going to be a long post ! Orbital Dilemma: i) Why there is opposite phase orbital for s-orbital? [ Couldn't find any representation on the web except for a pic in Ian Fleming's Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions,pg3) *I assert no right over the image,image is referenced...
  4. R

    Does hybridisation only occur with Carbon?

    I've been studying how hybridisation works, and in very single example I've come across, there is always Carbon as the atom that undergoes hybridisation. But this can't be right, can it? I mean, Nitrogen can form triple bonds, Oxygen can form double bonds, etc. I'd assume then that Nitrogen...
  5. Karan Punjabi

    Hybridisation of Chromate Ion Explained

    Can some one explain the structure of chromate ion on the basis of hybridisation cause I'm a bit confused I googled about it and there are posts like explaining it as sp3 hybridised ion. Explain please.
  6. Karan Punjabi

    Understanding Hybridization in Chemistry: Fact or Fiction?

    I just read what is hybridization its features and all. My textbook has a statement that hybrid orbital makes a stronger covalent bond than the old atomic orbitals but this can only be happen when hybrid orbital has less energy than the any of mixing orbitals. So is it true?
  7. Titan97

    Why is the Bond Length of CF3Cl Shorter than CH3Cl Despite Bent's Rule?

    Taken from 'Concise Inorganic Chemistry - J.D.Lee': "According to Bent's rule, more electronegative atom not only prefers to stay in the orbital having more p-character but can also increase the p-character in its attached orbital of the central atom depending on the circumstance... With an...
  8. Priyadarshini

    Sp^3d^2 and sp^3d^3 hybridisation

    Hi. During the formation of PCl5, the hybridisation is sp^3d and the dz^2 oribital is used. But in the cases of sp^3d^2 and sp^3d^3 hybridisation, like in the formation of SF6 and IF7 respectively, which of the d orbitals out of the five are used to make the hybrid orbital? Thanks!
  9. AdityaDev

    D2sp3 and sp3d2 Configurations of [Cr(NH3)6]3+ Ligand Complex

    [Cr(NH3)6]3+ has Cr3+ ion and the ligand is weak field. Hence the configuration of Cr ion is 3d3,4s0 My doubt is,will the ligands donate electrons starting from 3d to form d2sp3 or will it start from 4s and use 4p and 4d to form sp3d2? I know the 3 electrons of chromium are still unpaired but...
  10. gracy

    Hybridisation Q: Does Oxygen Hybridize for CO2?

    please answer.QUESTION ABOUT HYBRIDISATION. - during determining hybridisation we look only for central atom ,other atoms with which central atom combines ,say for eg ,in CO2 we take c as central atom and take its hybridization but does oxygen also hybridized before forming sigma bonds?
  11. Absentee

    Orbital hybridisation and orbital overlap

    Hey guys. When i was studying the molecular orbital diagram for HF, it was said to me that 1s od hydrogen CANNOT overlap with 2py or 2px of fluorine due to the assymetry of these two orbitals, so it overlaps exclusively with 2pz. (And cannot overlap with 2s of fluorine becouse of large energy...
  12. A

    Orbital Hybridisation: How Tetragon in sp3 is Formed

    In sp3 hybridisation, how a tetragon is formed? As per book, in ch4 (methane) there are four sigma bond of same length and strength. But we are having three sp sigma bonds (between s of H and p of C) and one ss sigma bond( between s of H and s of C). Then how can sp and ss sigma bond be of same...
  13. R

    Orbital Hybridisation: Myth or Misconception?

    Is it basically wrong? It just seems like hand-waving...
  14. N

    Sp and sp2 orbital hybridisation, constructive and destructive.

    Hello! When an s and a p orbital are hybridised to give and sp orbital, two orbitals are produced. According to my chemistry book, there are two orbitals due to in-phase and out-of-phase combinations of the the s and p orbitals. When we progress to sp2 hybridisation, there are three orbitals...
  15. J

    Is the Hybridisation of Manganese in MnO4- Really sp3?

    What is the hybridisation of manganese in MnO4- Configuration of manganese in 3d5 4s2 right? The paired electrons in 4s become unpaired - electron frm it jumps into the 4p orbital So now configuration looks like this - 3d5 4s1 4p1 Now manganese forms 4 sigma bonds and 3 pibonds so the...
  16. J

    Why isnt there a dps3d hybridisation?

    I know questions of "why" regarding micriscopic world can't be generally answered but still any reason why dsp3d hybridisation isn't there. I was studying coordination chemistry and there is outer orbital complex consisting only of outer d-orbitals and inner orbital complex consisting of only...
  17. Saitama

    Find hybridisation of Carbon compounds

    Hello! How to calculate the hybridisation in carbon compounds? Most of the time whenever i try to find out the hybridisation i get a wrong answer. I think the usual way of finding hybridisation doesn't work with carbon compounds. Is there any other way?
  18. Z

    Hybridisation of SO 2 and SeO 2

    Hybridisation of SO2 and SeO2 Why is the hybridisation of S in SO2 sp2 where as it is sp3 in SeO2 ?
  19. R

    Why is the MO theory for O2 different from VB theory?

    Hi, just wondering about MO theory. Take O2 for example; O is sp2 hybridised according to VB theory. However, when drawing the MO diagram for O2, one considers the sigma overlap between the s orbital and p orbitals separately (according to the theory), rather than considering the overlap of...
  20. C

    Standard enthelphy change and hybridisation

    Hi guys, here i have two question, but i don't understand the answer at all. For the standard enthalphy change question 5) b) i) shouldn't it be standard enthalphy change = Product - Reactant? But from the answer it was given as reactant - product. For question number 8, i don't understand...
  21. P

    Solving Hybridisation: 2pz, 2px, sp3, 2py Bonds

    The problem is as follows: Decide if the following pairs of orbitals overlap to form a σ bond, π bond, or no bond at all. Explain your reasoning in each case, including a sketch of the orbitals. Assume the bond lies along the z-axis. (a) 2pz and 2pz (b) 2py and 2px (c) sp3 and 2pz (d)...
  22. S

    Hybridisation of the carbon carrying the unpaired electron?

    Hi, In vinyl radical, CH2=CH* (* -unpaired electron) what is the hybridisation of the carbon carrying the unpaired electron?
  23. D

    Hybridisation and Variation theory [Quantum Mechanics]

    Homework Statement Give examples of methods used to find approx. answers to the Schrödinger's eqn. of systems too complex to be solved analytically. Homework Equations None required. The Attempt at a Solution I understand there are three methods commonly used, those mentioned in...
  24. K

    Explain the hybridisation of Cl atom in Cl2O7 or XeOF4?

    Hi, can someone explain the hybridisation of Cl atom in Cl2O7 or XeOF4?
  25. K

    Hybridisation in d-block elements

    Hi, can someone please explain how to find the hybridisation when elements of the d-block are involved? For, example.. What is the hybridisation undergone by Fe in Fe(CN)2??