# What is Hyperfine: Definition and 34 Discussions

In atomic physics, hyperfine structure is defined by small shifts in otherwise degenerate energy levels and the resulting splittings in those energy levels of atoms, molecules, and ions, due to interaction between the nucleus and electron clouds.
In atoms, hyperfine structure arises from the energy of the nuclear magnetic dipole moment interacting with the magnetic field generated by the electrons and the energy of the nuclear electric quadrupole moment in the electric field gradient due to the distribution of charge within the atom. Molecular hyperfine structure is generally dominated by these two effects, but also includes the energy associated with the interaction between the magnetic moments associated with different magnetic nuclei in a molecule, as well as between the nuclear magnetic moments and the magnetic field generated by the rotation of the molecule.
Hyperfine structure contrasts with fine structure, which results from the interaction between the magnetic moments associated with electron spin and the electrons' orbital angular momentum. Hyperfine structure, with energy shifts typically orders of magnitudes smaller than those of a fine-structure shift, results from the interactions of the nucleus (or nuclei, in molecules) with internally generated electric and magnetic fields.

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1. ### I How to work in the |F,m_F> states in hyperfine structure

Suppose that we have two atoms with one proton one electron each, and these electrons interact with each other. The states for the electrons are the singlet(S=0) and the triplet states(S=1). My question is if i have to keep the nuclear spin of the protons parallel when i write the states, for...
2. ### A Eigenvalues of Hyperfine Hamiltonian

I was reading a paper on Radical-Pair mechanism (2 atoms with 1 valence electron each) and the author used the hyperfine hamiltonian $$H_{B}=-B(s_{D_z}+s_{A_z})+As_{D_x}I_x+As_{D_y}I_y+as_{D_z}I_z$$ and found the following eigenvalues: a/4 (doubly degenerate) , a/4±B , (-a-2B±2√(A^2+B^2)) ...
3. ### I Hyperfine Splitting: Get Help Understanding It

I've looked around for help on sites and youtube but I don't really understand how to figure it out.
4. ### I Hyperfine structure - Hamiltonian and bases

Hi, could you please explain me, how to copmute the yellow parts? Thank you very much.
5. ### I List of hyperfine structure of the elements?

If caesium 133 frequency for its hyperfine structure is 9 192 631 770, and hydrogen is 1 420 405 751.7667 what are the frequencies for the other elements and their isotopes? Is there a list on line some were because this would be a long list. Any help on where to look on line would be...
6. ### Hyperfine structure of deuterium

Homework Statement Hi everybody! Here is the problem: Hyperfine splitting of Deuterium Balmer alpha line: Consider the ##3p_{3/2}## to ##2s_{1/2}## transition in deuterium. Find the number of transition lines and their frequency shifts with respect to the transition without hyperfine...
7. ### A Challenges to QED from hyperfine measurements

Does anybody have more insights regarding https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15484 High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED Does this really challange QED? Or does this mean that we miss certain contributions to QED calculations? The authors...
8. ### Energy splitting in hyperfine structure

Homework Statement I've been given the worked answer to a very similar question, but there's a step I don't understand so I can't apply it. My question asks: An energy level with ##J=\frac{11}{2}## has six hyperfine sub-levels with these relative energies...
9. ### I Hyperfine splitting and relative intensity of spectral lines

What is the cause of hyperfine line splitting? I saw somewhere that it was because of spin quantum number and somewhere else that it was because of how electrons interact in the atom. And relative intensity of spectral lines? I'd assume it's due to the probability of electron jumps being more...
10. ### A Hyperfine structure transition of Cs-133: calculation?

I'm looking for the theoretical calculation of the hyperfine structure transition frequency of Ca-133 which is used in atomic clocks to define the second according to SI-Units. Google, Google... there is a lot about the hyperfine Hamiltonian of hydrogen, but couldn't find none about that of...
11. ### Breit-Rabi Formula Derivation for j=1/2

Homework Statement Derive the Breit-Rabi equation in the case that the quantum number j is equal to 1/2, specifically the 1S_1/2 state of Hydrogen. This is the equation describing hyper-fine and Zeeman splitting of the energy levels in an applied magnetic field. Homework Equations We are given...
12. ### Hyperfine structure in hydrogen

Consider the Dirac equation for bounded electron in hydrogen atom. I am trying to get a clear physical explanation for all mathematical terms that appear in the Hamiltonian and energy spectrum. Kinetic and Coulombic potential and rest energies are the first terms and easy to identify. Then we...
13. ### Hyperfine Structure of $^133Cs$: Find I & J

Homework Statement A transition happens for ##\lambda = 494nm## in the Cesium ions (##^133 Cs##) between a term in the ##5p^5 6s## configuration and term in the ##5p^5 6p## configuration. Five components are observed with the following energies (relative to the transition of least energy): 0...
14. ### What is the nuclear spin of this atom?

Homework Statement A singly ionized atom exhibits hyperfine structure in a ##^3P_1 \rightarrow ^3S_1## transition. Assuming ##I## is greater than ##J## and given that the ##^3S_1## levels are split by ##66~GHz## and ##54~GHz##, find the nuclear spin ##I##. Homework Equations E_{HFS} =...
15. ### Quantum Hyperfine Interactions: Help Needed for Course Notes

Good day all, I'm taking a course on hyperfine interactions this semester. It is organised in the alternative way that we, the students prepare some part of the course notes (e.g. treat magnetic dipole term, electric quadrupole term etc.). The problem I have is that the course notes we...
16. ### Hyperfine Interaction Splitting

Homework Statement (a)Find splitting between F=0 and F=1 in hydrogen (b) Find the constant ##A## and nuclear magnetic moment Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Hyperfine splitting is given by: H_{hf} = \frac{A}{2} \left[ F(F+1) - I(I+1) - J(J+1) \right] The intervals are given by...
17. ### How hyperfine spiliting takes place ?

how hyperfine spiliting takes place ?
18. ### Hyperfine Interactions: What, How & Cs-133

what is hyperfine interactions? how is it related to hyperfine transition in Cs-133 and atomic clocks?
19. ### About the hyperfine energy splitting of a positronium

I have read from DJ Griffiths Quantum Mechanics that the electron-positron annihilation process will enlarge the hyperfine splitting of the positronium ground state. More precisely, the actual splitting is larger than that we calculated only considering the spin interaction between the positron...
20. ### Hyperfine Splitting In A Magnetic Field

1. Problem: Consider Hydrogen in its ground state in a magnetic field of magnitude B. Compute the effect of the magnetic field on the hyperfine structure of Hydrogen (that is you should include the interaction of both the proton and electron magnetic moments with the applied magnetic field)...
21. ### Hyperfine splitting in Hydrogen atom

We know this tiny splitting in degenerate levels in Hydrogen spectrum due to magnetic interactions between spins of electron and proton. but is that true the proton spin is independent of energy in this (hyperfine) splitting? I want to understand the physics of this splitting and how the spin...
22. ### Preparing Atoms in Hyperfine State F=2: Optically Pumping?

Hi guys As far as I have understood the technique of optical puming (OP), then if we look at the hyperfine state F=2 (for example), then OP can be used to prepare the atoms in the state F=2, mF=2, but not any other (i.e., lower) mF. Is there no technique for preparing atoms in a state with a...
23. ### Hyperfine Splitting the same as Polarization?

Is hyperfine splitting the same as polarization? If not, what's the difference? Thanks.
24. ### Fine structure, and hyperfine structure

Hello... I was just reading about that, and I have one question. In the chapter I've jut read about, the overall headline is about one electron atoms, so I was just wondering, since the overall equation got Z (Atomic number) in it, if this was for larger atoms as well, or ONLY one electron...
25. ### Measuring Hyperfine Interactions: Artemis' University Challenge

Hello, my name is Artemis. These days I study at University of Science and Technology in Cracow. Due to the fact that semester is almost over one of my tutors asked me to do a quick presentation about "Ways of measuring hyperfine interactions". I would appreciate it a lot if anyone of you could...
26. ### How do hyperfine splits occur?

Hi Anyone, This is my first post here and i have a bit of a quandry. I'm doing some work related to hyperfine transition levels in Rubidium. Ive been looking and asking but no-one can explain to me satisfactorly how hyperfine splits occur. Mostly i get answers like " you should find out...
27. ### Electric dipole transition between hyperfine levels of the ground state

microwave can be used to engineering potentials for alkali atoms i find that in the literature, people only take the magnetic dipole transition into account why the electric dipole transition is neglected? is it forbidden?
28. ### Hyperfine Structure for Hypogen

Homework Statement Hyperfine structure is the splitting of energy levels due to the coupling of the magnetic moment of the atomic nucleus and the electron’s total angular momentum. In a hypothetical atom called “hypogen” the electron is replaced by a negatively charged pion (π-) which has...
29. ### How Do You Derive the Hyperfine Hamiltonian from Magnetic Moments and Fields?

Homework Statement Derive the hyperfine Hamiltonian starting from \hat{H}_H_F = -\hat{\mu}_N \cdot \hat{B_L} . Where \hat{\mu}_N is the magnetic moment of the nucleus and \hat{B_L} is the magnetic field created by the pion’s motion around the nucleon. Write down the Hamiltonian in the...
30. ### Hydrogen spectrum hyperfine structure

A detailed picture of the Hydrogen red line shows a lot of detail: The difference in the 2 largest peaks is the fine structure, the lamb shift is clearly noted, but what are the other 2 bumps just below the lamb shift in the upper chart. I was thinking hyperfine, but I don't think that...
31. ### Hyperfine splitting of deuterium

[SOLVED] Hyperfine splitting of deuterium Homework Statement Calculate the wavelength of the photon emitted under a hyperfine transition in the ground state (n=1) of deuterium. Deuterium is a proton and a neutron in the nucleus, but still one electron. The spin of deuterium is 1.Homework...
32. ### Fine and hyperfine structure

Homework Statement I am trying to see if I understand these corrections to the hydrogen atom: To explain the fine structure correction, we go to the electrons frame of reference, in which the proton is moving with velocity v. This produces a magnetic field according to Maxwell's equations the...
33. ### What is the relationship between FS and HFS in the 3s3p Configuration?

I'm having some problems with the Fine and Hyperfine splitting (FS and HFS). For example the 3s3p Configuration, I understand the FS: *****************************_______Mj=1 ************1P________J=1*****_______ Mj=0 *****************************_______ Mj=-1 * * ************3P______ Is...
34. ### Hyperfine and fine structure ENERGIES

What are the approximate relative sizes of the following energies? a) The n = 1 to n = 2 energy difference in hydrogen and the rest mass mc^2 of an electron b) The n = 1 to n = 2 energy difference in hydrogen and a typical fine structure splitting in hydrogen c) A typical fine...