What is Lithium ion: Definition and 25 Discussions

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications. A prototype Li-ion battery was developed by Akira Yoshino in 1985, based on earlier research by John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, Rachid Yazami and Koichi Mizushima during the 1970s–1980s, and then a commercial Li-ion battery was developed by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi in 1991.In the batteries, lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and typically graphite at the negative electrode. The batteries have a high energy density, no memory effect (other than LFP cells) and low self-discharge. They can however be a safety hazard since they contain flammable electrolytes, and if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions and fires. Samsung was forced to recall Galaxy Note 7 handsets following lithium-ion fires, and there have been several incidents involving batteries on Boeing 787s.
Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across types of lithium-ion batteries. Handheld electronics mostly use lithium polymer batteries (with a polymer gel as electrolyte), a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode material, and a graphite anode, which together offer a high energy density. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4 spinel, or Li2MnO3-based lithium rich layered materials (LMR-NMC)), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) may offer longer lives and may have better rate capability. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC and its derivatives are widely used in electric vehicles.
Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include extending lifetime, increasing energy density, improving safety, reducing cost, and increasing charging speed, among others. Research has been under way in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a pathway to increased safety based on the flammability and volatility of the organic solvents used in the typical electrolyte. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and heavily fluorinated systems.

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  1. C

    Residential concrete densifier and sealer?

    Hello! I have absolutely no background in the sciences / chemistry, so I thought maybe you folks could help dumb it down for me. I am renovating an old house and just got new concrete poured in the basement. I want to polish the floors and leave them uncovered for environmental and health...
  2. P

    Charging Lipos @ 5C with Digital Power Supply

    I have a ton of 3.7 volt lipo's at my house, each of which can be charged @ 5C, and since each have a capacity of 270 mAH, than I should easily be able to charge them @ 1amp. I put 8 in parralel with each other so it is a 1s, 8p battery pack. each of the lipos is the same (in tems of specs, ik...
  3. P

    How to Charge a 4P 1S cylinder Lipo Pack

    Hello, I have recently bought 4 cylindrical lithium ion batteries from hobby king to make a battery pack. To do this, I put all 4 of them in Parallel, so that the voltage would stay the same, but the capacity would increase. It says on Hobby king that they can charge at 5C, and since they are...
  4. A

    What are the properties of lithium gas?

    I know this may be a dumb question but I don't know it. What I want to know is when lithium is heat and becomes a gas/vapor, does it still have the properties of lithium. Also I know that when water is changed between a liquid, gas, and solid, it always stays as H2O on the molecular level, can...
  5. P

    Can a 12V DC Source Efficiently Charge a 16.9V Lithium Ion Battery Pack?

    Hi, I have built a large, lithium ion battery bank, so that I may power some of my projects from battery. The bank is 10,000 milliamp hours at 16.9 volts, and was wondering the following. Can I charge my 16.9 volt battery pack with a 12 volt dc source? would It decrease the efficiency? Would...
  6. evilfreddie

    Li-Ion Battery Charger for Drill - 12V 3s Balance Charger

    Hey all I've got an old drill witch nicad batteries had died so i replaced them with 3 li ion batterys for 12v i still have the old charger plug so far I've hadto unsolder the batterys to charge them does anyone know of a 3s balance charger for lithium ion batterys asi can't find any online Tia
  7. N

    Li ion battery electrode surface area

    What effect (if any) would changing the surface area of electrodes in a lithium ion battery have? Would it allow for faster battery charging? Faster discharge rate? Thanks in advance
  8. S

    How to verify the Energy delivered by Lithium ion battery?

    How to verify the Energy and Capacity delivered by the Lithium Ion battery? I have a Lithium ion batter with below configuration: Nominal Voltage 4.2 V Nominal capacity 2250 mAh I am calculating the energy and capacity every second for my experiments. I use below formula to calculate the...
  9. I

    Difference between Lithium Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride

    Obviously there are MANY differences, but I'm curious about one in particular. In an article I read, the creator used NiMH batteries because of their high charge density, but also because they do not require a charge controller and voltage regulator in the circuitry. Why is this, and is there...
  10. marellasunny

    10S4P with Lithium ion battery; Question on the calculation

    I am planning to use the Panasonic NCR-18650 cylindrical cells for a BEV (Battery Electrical Vehicle). As it would be easier to buy ready-made modules, I have found a supplier selling a Li-ion pack that delivers 417 Wh(or in other words 11.6 Ah) at 36 V (something like what this guy uses...
  11. R

    Lithium Ion Charging: Constant Current vs Constant Voltage

    Good afternoon. I was going to make a 4.2v Lithium ion charger circuit, but so far what i have learned is, i will be needing constant current charger, so my question is what will happen if i charge with constant voltage? Like from a regulator maybe a linear one and i give like 4/4.1 volt...
  12. D

    How to fix my laptop battery Lithium Ion it does'nt charge anymore

    How to fix my laptop battery Lithium Ion when it doesn't charge.My friend says that his battery became stronger when he put it on the refrigerator,so i did also because my battery is having a problems with its charging.When it became full,and I'm using it before 20% it shutdown itself.But,after...
  13. S

    LED voltage indicator for 3.7v lithium ion battery

    For my project, the Lithium Ion Polymer Battery - 3.7v 2600mAh powers arduino, transmitter and a few other parts. My whole design works on 3.3v. I'm trying to build a circuit to indicate the status of the battery using LED. When the voltage of the battery is consumed below 3.0v, I want to...
  14. I

    Manufacture of solar panel, display, lithium ion battery and PCB

    I am interesting to know about the manufactures of these products: crystalline silicon solar cells, thin-film solar modules, display screens like: Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), touch panel and plasma, thin film rechargeable lithium ion batteries, lithium ion batteries for electric car, fuel...
  15. N

    Damaging lithium ion batteries

    So I have learned that all batteries have an internal resistance which will limit the current that it can output, so that you can't discharge a huge battery in a split second because of that internal resistance. But what I am wondering is, at what point is it dangerous to draw too much current...
  16. P

    Charging a lithium ion battery pack with a thermoelectic generator

    So I was wondering if I could get some help and advice on a project I am working on. I have next to no experience or knowledge of electrical circuits so I appreciate your patience. I am trying to power a structural health monitoring system "accelerometer" unit on a bridge using...
  17. B

    Need help with replacing a lead-acid sealed battery with a Lithium Ion battery

    What I am trying to do is replace my 12v 5Ah lead-acid battery with a 14.8v 6600mAh lithium ion battery. It powers a small fan belt. And for some reason I can't get the lithium battery to work. Can somebody tell me what I might be doing wrong, or if it will even work?
  18. N

    Effect of freezing on Lithium Ion Batteries

    A quick google search reveals conflicting opinions on whether or not this will have a negative impact on battery life. I carry my laptop outdoors with me every day on my walk from the train to the hospital, do I need to worry about the cold ruining my battery?
  19. G

    Electrical How difficult to build a DIY Lithium Ion Battery Charger?

    Not asking for a schematic, more a notion of roughly how challenging this will be.
  20. E

    Stoichiometric Maximum Concentration - Lithium Ion Batteries

    Hi, I am trying to test the validity of a simple lithium ion battery model that I consctructed to better understand the internal stress caused by the diffusion. I have referenced several papers and I am currently looking at how to calclualte the partial molar volume for a given material. To...
  21. J

    Replacing a lead acid 12 volt battery with a Lithium ion Polymer battery

    I got this idea that I could maybe replace the heavy lead acid battery on my motorcycle with a lithium ion polymer battery. I found that you can buy batteries for RC cars that match the power requirements. The lead acid battery is 12 volts, 6Ah. It seams that L.I.P. batteries for RC cars are...
  22. J

    Kids tractor lithium ion conversion

    My kids have a Peg Perego John Deere Gator tractor that uses a 12v battery. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B000G0KT6Y/?tag=pfamazon01-20 The battery requires monthly charging or it will die. The charge is slow and the winter months are a hassle. I could replace the battery but I'd rather...
  23. I

    Essay on the Lithium ion battery

    Hi all, I'm currently in the works of experimenting and writing up my Extended Essay on Chemistry for the IB (it is basically a very long lab report). I have chosen to do the sub-topic of electrochemistry, within which I am interested to do something on the Lithium-ion battery. However, this...
  24. W

    Is 1.5 Amps Too Much Current for Charging Lithium Ion Batteries?

    I have a couple of different lithium ion battery packs. On one pack charging current reads 0.1 amps, and on the other 1.5 amps. I already charged the 0.1 amp pack with 0.1 amps, and seems to be working. Now, I'm sort of weary charging the other pack with 1.5 amps. Doesn't that seem too much...