Lorentz is a name derived from the Roman surname, Laurentius, which means "from Laurentum". It is the German form of Laurence. Notable people with the name include:
A car travels at low speed on a road from start to finish, and counts the number of turns of the wheel, which gives it a road length of N.2πR, where R is the radius of the wheel.
Then he does the race again at relativistic speed. He sees the road with a Lorentz contraction. However, he has to...
The Lorentz transformation ensures different inertial observers measure the same speed of light. Are there other transformations, or other ways to setup a "spacetime" that also have this property of invariance? Is the Lorentz transformation the unique solution?
This is the defining generator of the Lorentz group
which is then divided into subgroups for rotations and boosts
And I then want to find the commutation relation [J_m, J_n] (and [J_m, K_n] ). I'm following this derivation, but am having a hard time to understand all the steps:
especially...
I was reading a discussion where some physicists participated* where the topic of Lorentz invariance violations occurring in cosmology is mentioned.
There, they mention that we can imagine a Lorentzviolating solution to the cosmological equations. What do they mean by that? Can anyone specify...
Background:
is the equation of Lorentz force for the force acting on a moving charge in electric and magnetic field.
For the magnetic field only it is : F=qv×B.
Question:
For magnetic field only why is the force not F=q(v×B) = F=qv×qB
Can someone please explain to me how can we obtain this integral in eq. 5.27 from eq. 5.26? I quite do not understand how is it possible to make this adjustment and why the (p_(f))^2 appeared there in the numerator and also why a solid angle appeared there suddenly.
In Schutz 8.3, while proving that a Lorentz gauge exists, it is stated that
$$\bar h^{(new)}_{\mu\nu} = \bar h^{(old)}_{\mu\nu}  \xi_{\mu,\nu}  \xi_{\nu,\mu} + \eta_{\mu\nu}\xi^\alpha_{,\alpha}$$
where ##\bar h## is the trace reverse and ##\xi^\alpha## are the gauge functions. Then it follows...
The twin paradox is connected to the special relativity but I wonder simply if one might construct the paradox (or something very similar) based on the Lorentz’ (and FitzGerald) work alone?
Several ingredients in the paradox, time dilation and Lorentz contraction, are often mentioned with...
Newton's gravity depends on the euclidean distance between two masses.
Two comoving frames will have different values of length between masses so the forces will be different in two frames.
Is it enough to prove that the gravity rule has to be modified?
(##c = 1##)
The general definition of the fourcurrent density is ##j^{\mu} = (\rho, \vec j)##, where ##\rho## is the charge density and ##\vec j## is the threecurrent density. This vector may be timelike, lightlike, or spacelike, because both positive and negative charges may be involved with...
I made a tool for calculating and visualizing how the electric and magnetic fields transform under a Lorentz boost. Thought I'd share it here, in case anyone finds it interesting.
https://emtransforms.vercel.app/
I am searching online for resources regarding studies done on the effect of the Lorentz force due to short circuit faults in capacitors. Although a DClink capacitor only sees the ripple, there would be high current during a fault. Since F=(qE + JxB), I am curious what the effects of the high...
In section 3.8, Feynman does a derivation of the Lorentz transformation for mass starting from
$$\frac{d}{dt}E=F \cdot v \hspace{1cm}(1) $$
But is this a valid starting point if you are going to show mass changes with velocity?
He says (1) comes from chapter 13 of his Lectures which he...
1. The 2nd line on the 3rd page of your notes, you have x=ct and
x'=ct', thus ux=dx/dt and ux'= dx'/dt' =c according to Einstein's
assumptiuon.
2. But near the end of the last page, you wrote dx'/dt' = (ux
v)/(1vux/c2) . Compare with 1. This equation can be valid only for ux=c
and...
The Lorentz transform for velocities is as follows:
$$u=\frac{v+w}{1+\frac{vw}{c^{2}}}$$
But which assumption exactly underlies this so that you get exactly this formula and not any other formula with approximately the same properties?
There are several "bumblebee" models [1], [2] where Lorentz invariance is violated usually resulting from a local vector or tensor field acquiring a nonzero vacuum expectation value
We do not know whether we are in the true vacuum state or in a "false"/metastable vacuum state that could decay...
In this paper [1] which considers the possibility that the Lorentz symmetry could be broken, at page 45 the author says:
"We now introduce a Higgs sector into the Lagrangian density such that the gravitational vacuum symmetry, which we set equal to the Lagrangian symmetry at low temperatures...
I have a quick question about the Galilean transform. If I have Alice running and Bob stationary. The Galilean transform will tell me the position of Alice from Bob's stationary position. Also if I have Alice's position which is moving it will tell me Bob's stationary position.
If I want Bob...
In the frame of Observer C standing by the side of the road, the speed of Car A with respect to Car B = v1 + v2. (Galilean Transformation).
In the frame of Car A, the speed of Car B < v1 + v2 (Lorentz Transformation).
Please tell me if this understanding is correct.
While deriving Lorentz transformation equations, my professor assumes the following:
As ##\beta \rightarrow 1,##
$$c^2t^2 + x^2 = k$$
approaches 0. That is, ##c^2t^2 + x^2 = 0.## But the equation of the hyperbola is preserved in all inertial frames of reference. Why would ##c^2t^2 + x^2##...
This is still a confusing concept for me. The Lorentz transformation for proper time is expressed as tau = (1v sq/c sq)^1/2 x coordinate time. Now we are told that tau is an invariant quantity with respect to all moving reference frames. So how can tau be invariant if its value depends on v...
##\bar{\mathcal{O}}## is moving with a velocity ##v## relative to ##\mathcal{O}## along ##x^{1}##
The Lorentz transformations between a Frame ##\mathcal{O}## and ##\bar{\mathcal{O}}## is given by:
$$\Delta x^{\bar{0}} = \gamma\left(\Delta x^0  v\Delta x^1\right)$$
$$\Delta x^{\bar{1}} =...
I have another question linked to the equations of Lorentz:
The Theory of the Special Relativity (SR) of Albert Einstein comes from the equation of Lorentz and we have the following equation on the time t’ in the moving frame:
The “space time” (x’, y’, z’, t’) is moving at a speed v measured...
Edit: Ugh accidentally posted instead of previewing, this is a lot of latex to write to give my attempted solution, but I'll keep doing that. I am using the chain rule (or dividing the differential of ##\vec v'## by that of ##t'##). I get
$$d \vec v' = \frac{d \vec v \cdot \vec u}{\gamma c^2...
I have a question linked to the equations of Lorentz:
The Theory of the Special Relativity (SR) of Albert Einstein comes from the equation of Lorentz and we have the following equation on the time t’ in the moving frame:
The space time (x’, y’, z’, t’) is moving at a speed v measured from the...
Two spaceships are heading towards each other on a collision course. The following facts are all as measured by an observer on Earth: spaceship 1 has speed 0.74c, spaceship 2 has speed 0.62c, spaceship 1 is 60 m in length. Event 1 is a measurement of the position of spaceship 1 and Event 2 is a...
A π+ meson is an elementary particle with a mean lifetime, defined in its rest frame, of τ = 2.60×10−8 s. The meson decays to a muon (µ+) and a neutrino (νµ) via the reaction π+ → µ+ + νµ. A π+ traveling in the laboratory decays so that the µ+ travels in the same direction as the original π+ and...
Summary:: Special relativity and Lorentz Transformations  I got this problem from a firstsemester course at university. I have been struggling for a few days and decided to get some help.
A rocket sets out from x = x' = 0 at t = t' = 0 and moves with speed u in the negative x'direction, as...
I am reading pretty much everywhere that LET (Lorentz Ether Theory, or call it NeoLorentzian Relativity, or whatever theory that involves a preferred undetectable frame with some yet unknown properties that make all the moving objects with respect to this frame length contact and time dilate)...
For a complex null tetrad ##(\boldsymbol{m}, \overline{\boldsymbol{m}}, \boldsymbol{l}, \boldsymbol{k})##, how to arrive at formulae (3.14), (3.15) and (3.17)? The equation (3.16) is clear as is. (I checked already that they work i.e. that ##\boldsymbol{e}_a' \cdot \boldsymbol{e}_b' = 2m'_{(a}...
I believe this does not belong to the homework category. I hope I won't be mistaken.
I am reading a book to selfstudy special relativity, the following is an example mentioned in the book.
When clock C' and clock C1 meet at times t'=t1=0, both clocks read zero. The Observer in reference frame...
Is there the simplest, direct, and easytounderstand method that only needs to apply the most basic algebra and logic to completely and strictly derive the Lorentz transformation?
Thanks for your help.
If ##\partial_{\alpha} J^{\alpha}(x) = 0## then ##Q \equiv \displaystyle{\int} d^3 x J^t(x)## is timeinvariant. To show that if ##J^{\alpha}(x)## is a fourvector then ##Q## is also Lorentzinvariant, he rewrites it as \begin{align*}
Q = \int d^4 x J^{\alpha}(x) \partial_{\alpha} H(n_{\beta}...
In the special theory of relativity, it seems impossible to derive the lorentz transformation without assuming that the lorentz factor is independent of the sign of the relative velocity. For some reason, I can't get my head around why this assumption is so easily made, as if it's trivial. Can...
In ch. 13, pg.349 of Wald it's asked to prove that ##g_{AA'BB'} = \epsilon_{AB} \bar{\epsilon}_{A'B'}## is a Lorentz metric on ##V## (containing the real elements of the vector space ##Y## of type ##(1,0;1,0)## tensors). Given the basis ##t^{AA'} = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(o^A \bar{o}^{A'} + \iota^A...
Example of emf due to Lorentz magnetic force is motional emf. When rod PQ moves to the left, there will be downwards magnetic force acting on the positive charge in the rod PQ so point Q is at higher potential compared to point P so there will be potential difference (emf) between P and Q
The...
In Q.E.D., the electrical part of the Lorentz Force between unlike and like charged particles is realized through the absorption and emission of photons.
How is the magnetic part of the Lorentz Force realized in Q.E.D. via photon activity?
As always, thanks in advance.
Hi,
It's not homework but I still thought I better post it here.
Please have a look on the attachment. For hiresolution copy, please use this link: https://imagizer.imageshack.com/img922/7840/CL6Ceq.jpg
I think in equations labelled "12", 'e' is electric charge and Ex is the amplitude of...
I consider three material points O, O', M, in uniform rectilinear motion in a common direction, so that in relation to the point O, the points O' and M move in the same direction with the constant velocities v and u (u>v>0). Assuming that at the initial moment (t0=0), the points O, O', M were in...
This is purely a historical question that came up in another thread. I always thought LET was the theory put forward by Lorentz that said the LorentzFitzgerald formula contracts objects moving through the aether. Clocks slowed down due to a shortening of their components. Light was an...
Hi,
I was looking at this derivation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derivations_of_the_Lorentz_transformations#From_group_postulates
and I was wondering
1 where does the group structure come from? The principle of relativity? or viceversa? or what?
2 why only linear transformations? I remember...
Suppose the Efield is ##E_y\hat y##, and Bfield is ##B\hat z##. Mass is ##m##.
z

_____x
/
y
##m(\ddot x \hat x + \ddot y \hat y) = q(E_y \hat y + (v_x \hat x + v_y \hat y) \times B \hat z)##
By grouping terms with ##\hat x## and ##\hat y## together,
##m\ddot x = qv_yB##...
Here the 3 set of equations we know, the Maxwell Equations, Lorentz Force, and Coulumb Force, actually I doubt a lot what set of equations represent all the electromagnetic aspects, I try research over the internet and I found a lot of contradictions in the answers, someone says we can get the...
So as the summary suggests, I am studying Electromagnetism, magnetic properties of matter and Magnetization vector in particular.
As a first example and to introduce the Magnetization vector (M), my textbook shows a ferromagnetic substance in a uniform magnetic field (B).
Then, every atom of...
Hello fellow physicists,
I need to prove that when ##\omega << \omega_0##, Lorentz equation for refractive indexes:
##n^2(\omega) = 1 + \frac {\omega^2_p} {\omega^2_0  \omega^2}##
turns into Cauchy's empirical law:
##n(\lambda)=A+\frac B {\lambda^2}##
I also need to express A and B as a...
Hello fellow users,
I've been given the Lorentz model to calculate the refraction index of a dielectric, the formula in its simplest way states that:
##n^2(\omega) = 1 + \frac {\omega^2_p} {\omega^2_0  \omega^2}##
Where ##\omega_p## is the plasma frequency and ##\omega_0## is the resonance...
So for the formula, u'=u/(δ(1(uv)/c^2)
u=2.06E8 and v=0. I am only looking at the y components here.
Since v=0 it really becomes u'=u/δ or u'= u*sqrt(1(u^2)/c^2)).
Anyways when I plug this in I am getting 1.49E8 when the answer should be 0.951E8. Am I not using the correct formula here?
Hello, why time is the fourth dimention and not another quantity or variable? General relativity has as a special case the special relativity, so Lorentz transformations are contained in general relativity but are they in a more general form than that of special relativity generally? If they...
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