What is Memory: Definition and 317 Discussions

Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If past events could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, relationships, or personal identity to develop. Memory loss is usually described as forgetfulness or amnesia.Memory is often understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory. This can be related to the neuron.
The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor. Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor. The working memory also retrieves information from previously stored material. Finally, the function of long-term memory is to store data through various categorical models or systems.Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data. Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory that is encoded with specific meaning, while episodic memory refers to information that is encoded along a spatial and temporal plane. Declarative memory is usually the primary process thought of when referencing memory. Non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconscious storage and recollection of information. An example of a non-declarative process would be the unconscious learning or retrieval of information by way of procedural memory, or a priming phenomenon. Priming is the process of subliminally arousing specific responses from memory and shows that not all memory is consciously activated, whereas procedural memory is the slow and gradual learning of skills that often occurs without conscious attention to learning.Memory is not a perfect processor, and is affected by many factors. The ways by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved can all be corrupted. Pain, for example, has been identified as a physical condition that impairs memory, and has been noted in animal models as well as chronic pain patients. The amount of attention given new stimuli can diminish the amount of information that becomes encoded for storage. Also, the storage process can become corrupted by physical damage to areas of the brain that are associated with memory storage, such as the hippocampus. Finally, the retrieval of information from long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory. Normal functioning, decay over time, and brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of the memory.

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  1. DaveC426913

    Can I upgrade the memory on my phone?

    (I think I may have asked this before) Update: Yup. So obvs I didn't get the answers then I need to move forward. One thing that as changed is my provider. --- I am mystified and a little intimidated by the technical aspects of my phone and phones in general. I don't really understand if the...
  2. M

    Medical Does the human brain really have a limit for memory storage?

    I recently read that the “functional information content of human memory" as 10^9 bits at midlife based on testing of text and image retention” It makes sense that anything biological would have a limit but memory is such a strange thing that I can’t see how it would be like storing bytes on a...
  3. Doc Al

    RIP Harry Lorayne, memory expert and magician

    Harry Lorayne was a magician and a memory master (referred to by some as the "Yoda of Memory"). He died yesterday at 96. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Lorayne I found his first book, How To Develop a Super Power Memory, when I was in high school. I still use the alpha-numeric code he...
  4. shivajikobardan

    Comp Sci What happens in memory during DMA using pointers?

    #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> int main() { int *p; p=(int *) malloc(4); if(p==NULL) { printf("Insufficient memory"); return; } printf("Enter a number\n"); scanf("%d",p); printf("Value of p=%d",*p); } 1) What happens in background when we...
  5. B

    Python Loading .nii images while saving memory

    Hello everybody, for my Deep Learning exam, I have to develop a project that provides for the generation of 3D images in format .nii using the DCGAN algorithm trained with some real images of MRI scans of brains of patients with Alzahimer. I have a serious problem. I should load three different...
  6. DaveC426913

    Can I add more memory to my phone?

    I have no more room on my phone. I've purged as much data as possible - including all photos, video, etc. When I had to install an app on my phone necessary for air travel documents, I had to delete a bunch of my favorite apps just to make room. It's now got 1.5Gb of 1.8Gb used. Its also very...
  7. mktsgm

    Structural Questions about Memory B cells

    I have the following doubts regarding B cells. Normally upon the stimulation by a T-cell, the activated B-cell differentiates into plasma and memory cells. 1) What are the structural differences among the naive B-cells, activated B-cells, Plasma B-cells, and memory B-cells? I am interested in...
  8. Ivan Seeking

    Share Your Strangest Memory: Real or Imagined?

    We all have an odd experience from time to time. I assume that most people have a childhood memory or two that don't make sense. Some people claim to have experienced the seemingly inexplicable. Do you have any strange or seemingly inexplicable memories or stories to share? There is one that...
  9. Haorong Wu

    MATLAB Optimizing Memory Usage in Matlab: Tips and Techniques

    Hi. I am using Matlab to solve ODEs. I use ode45 in a for loop since solving the ODEs in a single ode45 function yielding an error of "out of memory". However, after the loop has run many times for several hours, the memory will still be full and the program will become slower and slower. If I...
  10. kyphysics

    Why Age-Related Memory Issues Can Be So Oddly Specific?

    My father has some sort of elderly, age-related cognitive decline and/or disease (possibly dementia or Alzheimer's) that we haven't officially diagnosed yet (beyond his primary care physician simply saying that some cognitive decline is natural with age). One thing that puzzles me is why he...
  11. Wrichik Basu

    Google Chrome suddenly using lot of CPU & memory after update

    I just updated Chrome, and suddenly, my laptop's memory and CPU usage peaked. All 16 GB of memory was used up, and all CPUs were showing 100% usage. Everything came down to normal as soon as I closed Chrome. Here is a screenshot, taken some time after this peak usage: This is on Ubuntu...
  12. M

    I Can a quantum system with internal memory be in an energy eigenstate?

    If a system is in an eigenstate of the hamiltonian operator, the state of the system varies with time only with a "j exp(w t)" phase factor. So, the system is in a "stationary state": no variation with time of observable properties. But the system could in theory (for what I understand) be...
  13. M

    Medical Memory: Do some people have more “space” or just better retrieval?

    I’ve read that the human brain capacity has 2.5 petabytes worth of memory storage. I have an excellent memory for details; even super obscure things that happened decades ago. I only have an average IQ but my recall is very good especially when my memory is jogged or if I had read something...
  14. nomadreid

    Conflicting interpretations of rosemary oil study

    The journal in question is the International Journal of Neuroscience, which appears to be a respectable peer-reviewed journal. I give a link to a reproduction in a secondary source, with a note that I am not addressing the more subjective "mood" part of the paper...
  15. M

    Does having a good memory mean you have a high IQ?

    So I have an excellent memory. It’s not eidetic but I remember minuscule details that other people shouldn’t. I always did pretty decent in school but I was weak in math. I am a grad student currently going for a degree in Library Sciences. My IQ was tested as a toddler and it was a little above...
  16. J

    Does this cause a memory leak?

    I am working through C++ Primer by Lippman et al. In Section 12.2.1 on smart pointers and dynamic arrays, they give this bit of code: // up points to an array of ten uninitialized ints unique_ptr<int[]> up(new int[10]); up.release(); // automatically uses delete[] to destroy its pointer I just...
  17. A

    Can a Toroidal Core and Hall Effect Sensor Create Transparent Permanent Memory?

    Hi everyone . Since I do not have all the necessary knowledge to do what I am about to explain, I ask you for help if you feel like it. I would like to understand if it is possible and how to make an elementary and completely transparent permanent memory using a small toroidal core with a high...
  18. DaveC426913

    What are the different types of memory used for data entry?

    I'm doing a lot (a LOT) of data entry right now - patient info. I can't copy/paste because one program is in a remote window, so copy/paste doesn't transfer. So I've got to read 10-digit health card numbers and multi-part fee codes from an Excel sheet into the billing app. The more I can...
  19. Z

    Paging, Virtual Address Space and Physical Memory and Page Frames

    Hi, The following is not a homework question. My question is: My answer is: Total pages required = 2^32/2^7 = 2^25 pages Thus page table has 2^25 entries PM = 2^16 Total page frames in PM = 2^16/2^ 7= 9 page frames Somebody please guide me what is the correct solution for the above. Zulfi.
  20. MathematicalPhysicist

    How Close Are We to Having a Single 1TB RAM Memory Card?

    How far are we from a one card of memory of 1TB? I mean not using several memories, but just one memory card with a capacity of 1TB? My question is regarding the memories in desktops or laptops.
  21. L

    Shape memory alloy spring

    Do you have any information's about how to calculate the bias spring or the Force needed ? the current necessary to heat the SMA spring for a 4mm stroke ? Thank you
  22. M

    What does a good memory mean about the brain?

    My question on neurons and memory.
  23. Tone L

    Studying Jogging my memory.... (refreshing on subjects before returning for my MSME)

    Hi folks, I am returning to school this coming fall to pursue a M.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering. This fall, I will have been out of school for about 3.5 years and let me tell you, I have forgotten a large portion of calculus and intermediate classical physics :D. Rather than have this...
  24. MaxR2018

    Solving Memory Cache Exercise: Addressing Memory & Tags

    I'm triying to do thiS way, but I'm not sure. First: I have 32Mb of so 32Mb=2^25, so the memory adress has 25 bits. Second: with blocks of 32 bytes =2^5 bytes so the word has 5 bits. Third: If cache has 256kb and each block has 32 bytes, so 256kb/32bytes=8000, that means i have 8000 ways. If...
  25. PainterGuy

    Programming determines how well memory hierarchy is utilized

    Hi, Please have a look on the attachment. It says, "In a computer system, the overall processing speed is usually limited by the memory, not the processor. Programming determines how well a particular memory hierarchy is utilized. The goal is to process data at the fastest rate possible." I...
  26. PainterGuy

    Understanding DRAM Refresh Operations

    Hi, Could you please help me with the questions below? All of the questions are related to each other. Thank you. Question 1: Please have a look on this attachment. The following text is from the parts highlighted in yellow in attachment. "Dynamic memory cells store a data bit in a small...
  27. T

    Forensic analysis using Memory Dump

    I'm in my second year in college and I've taken an Operating Systems course that has a project component. I've been assigned Memory Forensics as my project topic. On approaching the professor I was told that I need to attempt to attack the Linux Kernel ( I'm guessing that means I need to write...
  28. Lapse

    Understanding Memory in Nios II

    Homework Statement My specific question is: What is the value held in r7 (written in hexadecimal) after the following instructions execute? addi r5, r0, 0x30 ldw r7, 0(r5) Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution There's a few things I'm not understanding... Here are my...
  29. T

    MIPS Number of Instructions Executed and Memory Accessed

    Homework Statement The number of instructions a program has is the static instruction count. The number of instructions actually executed (e.g. due to some instructions being repeated, as in a loop) is called the dynamic instruction count. Consider the following code: li $t0, 99...
  30. A

    Medical Where is Memory Stored in the Brain?

    Everyone remembers the things that happen to them, which we call it memory. But where is the memory stored and how is it stored ? I mean in which part of the brain and in which state.
  31. R

    Average number of memory accesses?

    Homework Statement The Unsorted-Optimized array structure is used to store a data set. Calculate its density if: Each of the client's nodes contains 200 bytes of information and there are 1,000,000 nodes in the data set. (This was the previous problem, the problem I'm doing is based on it...
  32. platosuniverse

    How does the brain recall memories?

    I'm working on a project and I've been doing research about memory recall and I haven't found a lot of info on it. I've found info on how memories are formed. A study talks about how memories form in different parts of the brain and play back like a streaming video...
  33. dRic2

    Cloud storage vs physical memory

    Hi, I need more memory (not to much though... 50GB should be fine for now), but I don't know whether to buy an external hard drive or try cloud storage. I'm pretty dumb when it comes to computers and related stuff so I'd like to hear some suggestions. Thanks Ric
  34. Greg Bernhardt

    Our memory comes from an ancient virus

    Pop science: http://bigthink.com/philip-perry/our-memory-comes-from-an-ancient-virus-neuroscientists-say Paper: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31504-0
  35. Wrichik Basu

    Java Representation of two-dimensional arrays in the memory

    Arrays declared in java are stored in the memory in two ways: row-major-wise and column-major-wise. As per our teacher, the choice of the storage technique depends on how we enter the array elements. For example, for this code: int arr[][] = new int[10][10]; Scanner kb = new Scanner...
  36. Y

    Can a virus be in a memory stick?

    Can virus infect memory stick? I backed up my files onto the memory stick from my infected laptop. Can virus get copied into the memory stick? Can virus infect pdf, jpg, doxx or other files? How can I scan the memory stick without worry about infecting another computer that try to scan the...
  37. S

    Quantum Computing and memory capacity

    Does quantum computing have any profound implications for the memory capacity of computers? It's often possible to replace a large table of data by a smaller set of numbers and an algorithm that reconstructs each entry of the table using the smaller data set. Will quantum computers made such...
  38. M

    The Mysterious Phenomenon of Photographic Memory

    Having a photographic memory is a reality or only a fiction, an urban legend? Some people are claimed to have a photographic memory like famous scientist Nicola Tesla. Self-made http://mentalfloss.com/article/25525/quick-10-10-people-photographic-memories Thank you.
  39. A

    Why there is no unit for memory recognised by SI

    As we all know that there is 7 fundamental units and rest can be delivered for physical Quantities.why there is no any define unit for memory element.Now these days all around us we can see electronic systems which have memory element and memory element store data to measures data we have...
  40. F

    Phase transformation in shape memory alloys

    Dear all, As part of my MSc thesis I am using molecular dynamics simulation to study the pseudoelastic effect of Cu-Zr shape memory alloy during a tensile and shear tests. My question is related to the stress induced phase transformations during both tests. During the tensile test I can...
  41. C

    How to Implement a Salami Memory Allocator in C?

    Salami Allocator In this warm-up submission you will write a totally trivial allocator: The function init allocator() reserves a given portion of memory for the allocator. Every call to my_malloc() cuts off the requested amount of memory from the remainder of the reserved memory. The call to...
  42. Question_

    How can I improve my learning style in college?

    I'm a rather slow learner relative to other students. I take the understanding of the material to be of greater importance than rote memorization of it. If anyone looks at the forgetting curve of memorized material, you can appreciate how inefficient rote memorization is. I'm also quite lazy in...
  43. A

    I Can superdense coding be achieved without quantum memory?

    In superdense coding how can BSA be performed on the second of a pair of hyperentangled photons if the photon that was sent sometime earlier was measured on arrival? Would not the measurement have destroyed the entanglement? I’m trying to understand superdense coding as set out in this paper...
  44. drgibbles

    Processor and Memory data alignment with base pointers?

    Hello, working on a puzzle and I think this may be what I need to do to solve it. I have a long string of characters,752 total with the range 0-9 and a-f. I believe that the data needs to be aligned based off the processor and memory. The Cpu is at 2800MHz and the memory is 1024MB. Is there a...
  45. N

    Transistors: Tiny Silicon Crystals, Memory Cells, & Shrinking Bits

    Transistors are tiny crystal of silicon. Transistor switch and it's support component are memory cell. A single memory chip can hold up to 4 transistor ? What is the shrinking bit ? Can you please explain?
  46. G

    RAM memory diagram using decoders

    Homework Statement Draw a block diagram of 32kx8 bit RAM memory using decoders DEC 3/8 and memory components 8kx8 bit. 2. The attempt at a solution First we find the number of memory components: N=\frac{32kx8}{8kx8}=\frac{2^{18}}{2^{16}}=4. The number of decoders is 32/8+1=5 There are 4...
  47. pairofstrings

    Is the design of Raspberry Pi stored in a memory component?

    Hello. I have a following C programming language code that blinks an LED ON and OFF. #include<bcm2835.h> #define LED RPI_GPIO_P1_12 int main(int argc, char **argv) { if(!bcm2835_init()) return 1; bcm2835_gpio_fsel(LED, BCM2835_GPIO_FSEL_OUTP); unsigned int delay(1000); while(1)...
  48. C

    ROMs: Q&A for Understanding Crosspoints and Fuses

    Homework Statement We have been introducted to ROMs in class. I just have a few questions to make sure I'm getting this concept correctly. The intersection between the lines are called crosspoints. At each crosspoint there are programmable fuses. The fuses can either be unchanged(short...
  49. berkeman

    Medical Temporary Memory Blocks and Facilitating Recall Actively

    So I'm wondering if there are good studies of memory blocks and memory recall. For example, I will fairly often meet a person that I haven't seen for a while, and have a hard time recalling their name. I often "feel" like there is a mental "block" electically or chemically to recalling their...
  50. I

    Does procedural memory include learning complex thoughts?

    Hello, I've heard about "H.M." and similar patients that lost the ability to create declarative memories, but can still create non-declarative memories. I was wondering, since one in this condition can for example, develop a habit of drawing complex shapes, and not know they did it, can they...