What is Microscopes: Definition and 31 Discussions

A microscope (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.
There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the method an instrument uses to interact with a sample and produce images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons through a sample in its optical path, by detecting photon emissions from a sample, or by scanning across and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses lenses to refract visible light that passed through a thinly sectioned sample to produce an observable image. Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope, electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and various types of scanning probe microscopes.

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  1. harundurmush

    I Explanation for homemade digital microscope's optical systems?

    Some resources mention about eyepiece lenses for human-eye microscopes (not digital ones). Also some sources says that removing the lens from the camera module of raspberry pi and combine it with a objective lens such as TREEYE 15.3 mm is enough to create optical system for microscope. What is...
  2. Shreya

    Why don't we find the angular magnification of objective lens in microscopes?

    I tried deriving the angular magnification of eyepiece & this is what I got. ## m_\theta = \frac {h}{u} * \frac {D} {h} ## Taking v as ##f_0 + L## from the diagram, I calculated u. ## m_\theta = - \frac{DL} {f_0 (f_0 +L)}## Please verify my calculations and kindly point out my mistakes.
  3. M

    What's the Best Budget Dissecting Microscope for Photography?

    I am looking for a cheap, dissecting microscope with which to take photos of bugs and tiny flowers. I've seen digital scopes for electronics repair but don't know if they have any depth of field. Any advice? Thanks.
  4. A

    Medical Multiple simultaneous sample observations on a Microscope device?

    Is it possible to design & construct a Microscope (optical or Electron) which can take multiple slides samples instead of a single sample slide at a time?. Possible construction of the Sample Slides target is a circular disc holding say 5-10 sample slides. The Circular disc can be rotated...
  5. H

    Problem about compound optics in microscopes

    angular magnification=9.62 part a 1/s+1/s'=5 1/(25-s-s')+1/s"=1/2.6 -s"/s=m can't find m, don't know how to use the info that a person of normal eyesight is looking into the microscope.
  6. M

    What are the benefits of utilizing microscopes in the field of chemistry?

    Hey everyone, Microworlds here, I wanted to make myself available as a resource in the chemistry department for anyone looking for troubleshooting or information relating to the microscopes they use. I have read the posting guidelines and will focus on posting resources and helpful...
  7. A

    Why Do Microscopes Use Magnification Labels and Vision Correction Uses Diopters?

    Homework Statement - Why is it more useful to mark an objective lens [in a microscope] by its magnification rather than focal length? - Why might it be more convenient to think in terms of refractive power rather than focal length? [dealing with vision here] Homework Equations - thin lens...
  8. C

    Why don't we have gamma ray microscopes?

    Homework Statement Why? We can use shorter wavelengths than that of electrons to view electrons and more? What is stopping us? Can the image not be imprinted on a plate of some sort instead of being viewed by the eye directly? Homework Equations none The Attempt at a Solution I'm guessing no...
  9. E

    Should People with Astigmatism Use Contacts or Glasses When Using Microscopes?

    I have very strong astigmatism, for a 17-year-old. I wear toric contacts, which is supposed to help people with astigmatism. I take a college biology class and today we were looking into light microscopes. I have always struggled with looking in microscopes, but today felt so much worse. After...
  10. S

    Optical microscopes and white light / laser light

    I have a few questions regarding an optical microscope and their white light sources... So white light generally first hits a diffuser, some kind of ground glass lens. What is the purpose of this? Then the light goes through a field diaphragm, which we can open and close. I have heard that...
  11. J

    Conclusion for seeing the infinitely small

    I need to write a conclusion for a presentation I'm doing on "Seeing the infinitely small" (translation from french), which is basically about microscopes and the LHC, how to observe the different levels of small and all that... What can I write to answer, "why are we trying to observe the...
  12. I

    A problem about Fresnel fringes of electron microscopy

    My question is simple: Why do the Fresnel fringes at the edge of a hole in a reticulated carbon film become larger and more widely spaced when the defocus is increased? This occurs whether you are over focused or under focused, right? But why?
  13. DaveC426913

    USB Eyepiece for Microscopes: Quality Viewing from Any Position

    I stumbled across this. http://www.innovatoys.com/tech-gadgets/usb-eyepiece-for-microscopes/5937 I've got a 6" reflector on an equatorial mount. At some angles, an hour of viewing could put me in a chiropractor's office. It would be cool to observe the sky from a sitting position that didn't...
  14. D

    A microscope in an electricity laboratory

    Is there any usage for a measuring microscope in an electricity laboratory as a part of any experiment? We have a Mitutoyo measuring microscope in our fundamental electricity physics lab which is a course for sophomores. We used it for apparent depth in our optics lab which is retired now! I'm...
  15. K

    Do you guys have microscopes at home?

    I really want one but I'm not sure what to look for. I have lots of experience on normal compound and Nikon inverted compound scope for eukaryotic cell culture but I'm obviously not going to buy one of those for my house. It'd be nice If I could use a camera with it too. I don't want to have it...
  16. A

    Why don't compound microscopes use an erecting lens like terrestrial telescopes?

    I read that in terrestrial telescope there is an erecting lens whose function is to erect the inverted image formed by objective lens so that final image formed by eyepiece is also erect.there is no need of erecting lens in astronomical telescope because astronomical bodies are symmetrical in...
  17. edguy99

    What will higher resolution microscopes see?

    The Nature article http://www.nature.com/news/microscopy-hasten-high-resolution-1.16393 talks about the importance of the higher resolution microscopes: "Build precision microscopes to map atoms", and "To truly understand materials' chemical and physical properties, atomic arrangements need to...
  18. F

    What is the range of optical frequecy?

    I see the term o"ptical frequency" in some articles. From Wikipedia I read that it means the whole EM spectrum. But something says to me it may be only the visible part of the spectrum. Now, which definition is correct? Thanks
  19. Choisai

    Microscope magnification with camera

    I have two lenses for my microscope. The object lens which magnifies 63 X. Then there is my eyepiece lens with f=100 mm which focuses the incoming light at an camera. How can I calculate the total magnification? All calculations so far for the eyepiece involve the 25 cm of the human eye, but now...
  20. R

    Optic microscopes. New illumination technic

    Dear friends I have been working on a new way of illuminating microscope specimens. Cannot disclose the innings of it since all is under development. Nevertheless I attach photo since I think you will find it interesting. That is the mouth of a honey Bee, photo compares standard bright-field...
  21. U

    Ray diagrams, lenses and microscopes

    Hi all, I've been reading about biconvex lenses, drawing ray diagrams and real/virtual images. I'm now trying to translate this into how an image is formed in a compound infinity optics microscope. And this has raised some questions: -In an infinity optical system the object is placed at a...
  22. C

    Good book on light/optics and microscopes

    Hi awesome people at physicsforum, I'm interested in understanding light and optics such that i can understand the basics behind the different types of microscopes (phase-contrast, light microscope, electron emmision etc.). I'm not so interested in the math and calculations, more in the...
  23. P

    Geometric optics on microscopes

    An infinity corrected microscope objective has a magnification of 100× for a tube lens with focal length 180 mm. The numerical aperture of the objective is 0.90. Calculate the the diffraction limited spatial resolution if the objective is used with red light (660 nm). (Ans.: f=1.8 mm; d=447...
  24. E

    Simple Microscopes: Find Focal Length & Magnifying Power

    I performed a simple experiment to find the focal length of a magnifying glass. Taking a white sheet of paper as a screen and a building as object at infinity, i got a clear image at 12.5 cm, which is approximately the focal length of the lens. Plugging this into the formula for magnifying power...
  25. M

    Why virtual images in telescopes & microscopes?

    Why in telescopes and microscopes the ocular distance is such that it creates virtual images instead of real images?
  26. F

    Minumum electron energy and microscopes

    Homework Statement The highest achievable resolving power of a microscope is limited only by the wavelength used; that is, the smallest item that can be distinguished has dimensions about equal to the wavelength. Suppose one wishes to "see" inside an atom. Assuming the atom to have a diameter...
  27. D

    Scanning tunneling microscopes, physics lab

    This may be a bit of a silly question, but I'm wondering if it is feasible to design a freshman level lab experiment using a STM? For example, let's say the lab is simply intended to give the students a better appreciation of how a STM operates within the framework of quantum mechanics, with the...
  28. C

    See Unicellular Organisms w/ Light Microscope 1000x Mag

    can a light microscope with 1000x magnification see clearly a unicellular organism moving around and feeding and stuff like that. And if not would u need an electron microscope?
  29. matthyaouw

    Tips for Preventing Eye Damage from Microscopes

    Ok, so I'm going to be using microscopes a fair amount this summer and autumn. Last time I was using them on a regular basis, the sight in the eye I was using became worse and I began to have trouble focusing when I wasn't using the scope (though it seems to have recovered since). Has this...
  30. K

    Compound Microscope: Calculating Focal Length of Objective

    [b]1. A compound microscope has the objective and eyepiece mounted in a tube that is 18.0 cm long. The focal length of the eyepiece is 2.24 cm, and the near-point distance of the person using the microscope is 25.0 cm. If the person can view the image produced by the microscope with a completely...
  31. michael879

    Proton Microscopes: Exploring a New Technology

    if the reason electron microscopes work so effectively is because of the electrons small wavelength, why not use a proton (or neutron) microscope instead? a proton's wavelength is about 10,000 times smaller than an electrons...