Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour.
In current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field, gravity.
There are several "bumblebee" models [1], [2] where Lorentz invariance is violated usually resulting from a local vector or tensor field acquiring a nonzero vacuum expectation value
We do not know whether we are in the true vacuum state or in a "false"/metastable vacuum state that could decay...
Hello forum,
I am reading this article on quantum machine learning. At one point in the article (page 7) they plot the ROC curve as background rejection vs. signal efficiency. Researching these concepts (since I did not understand them fully), I read that ROC curves should be plotted as TPR...
Several texts state the vertex HQET Feynman rule as : igTijvμ\frac{1}{1+\slashed{v}} with the reasoning for vμ presented as being due to the QCD interaction vertex being between two heavy quark propagators, which are \frac{1+\slashed{v}}{2v.k}, giving ...
I have been tasked with calculating amplitudes of a B meson decaying to a photon and lepton/lepton anti-neutrino pair ,upto one loop and have pretty much never seen this thing before. I will ask my questions along the way as I describe what I am doing.
This factorization theorem seems to go thus...
In Quarks & Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics by Halzen and Martin page 42 reads:
I do not understand what the issue is, however. What do they mean by "we want... to transform in exactly the same way"?
Didn't they just show that they do transform in exactly the...
Just to keep this from being a long post:
I went to a local CSU for Materials Science and Engineering in the fall of 2018 after graduating high school in the spring of 2018. I really like learning about everything that makes up the world around me, and why things are the way they are, and in...
As seen in the summary, my question is purely hypothetical and I understand that it would most likely be impossible to happen (or I just haven't read enough). The concept that quarks and leptons are the fundamental particles of the universe has existed for a while now - therefore we know that...
In a head-on collision between the proton and electron, what is the squared 4-momentum transfer between the two particles.
Starting with the difference in momentum of the electron with the 4-vectors before and after the event: $$(P-P')^2=P^2+P'^2-2P\cdot P'$$
The circumstances are such that the...
I had been studying this topic from various textbooks and review articles and I am confused about some terminologies and concepts. The question I have typed in this PDF.
[Mentor Note -- Added screenshot of PDF contents]
The question may be ambiguous but it's really simple. One says that the baryon octet is the D(1,1) representation of SU(3), but then uses the same one for mesons. D(1,1) means one quark and one antiquark, which corresponds perfectly to mesons. But how can it explain baryons?
My information and...
Usually in papers there are many plots, and sometimes I do not understand how they plot them, with which kind of software or program they are plotted. I just attached three of the plots, I would be very thankful if you guide me, any of them is plotted with using which method, software or...
I've been trying for a very long time to show that the following integral:
$$ I_D=2{\displaystyle \int} \, {\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^3} d \Pi_i \, (2\pi
)^4\delta^4(p_H-p_L-p_R) |{\cal M}({e_L}^c e_R \leftrightarrow h^*)|^2
f_{L}^0f_{R}^0(1+f_{H}^0). $$
can be reduced to one dimension:
$$
I_D...
I'm given an ultra-high energy cosmic ray with energy 10^20 eV. It is coming from a source 10 Mpc away with an extragalactic magnetic field with strength B = 10^-9 G. I am to determine the maximum angular deflection of this cosmic ray, so it hits Earth.
I don't have an attempt of the solution...
The C-parity of π+ π- alone is simply (-1)^L, where L is the angular momentum quantum number for the system. But then what is C-parity of π+ π- π0? Is it simply (-1)^L (+1), where L is the angular momentum quantum number for the π+ π- subsystem (which isn't necessarily the angular momentum of...
I am having trouble to understand what it means by "physically relevant real parameters" and how does it help us to specify a quantum system.
Let say, we have a state of k half spin electrons? My guess is about the local phase of the spin, and this would make it 2^k parameters since each...
Here are the quotes https://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/show-your-affection-with-physics-valentines , I find them funny except for the last one is hurtful, I shouldn't say such a thing for someone on a valentine's day because they would care about the valentine's day, personally I find it...
Hi!
So I have just been studying Yang-Mills theory advanced quantum field theory.
In chapter 72 of Srednicki's book Quantum Field Theory they list the Feynman rules for non-abelian gauge theory.
I was asked if I could show some sample allowed diagrams but I could not.. In standard particle...
I'm confused on how De Broglie's hypothesis works. I've attached my thinking in a pdf file below.
I'm not an expert in the field of particle physics(I'm only in high school), so there may be some error in my logic(I really think so, or else De Broglie was wrong!(hint:he isn't))
I've also read...
I do not really know the relationship between potential energy and mass difference.
Isn't the difference in mass of protons and neutrons due to their quarks? (the neutron is made of two down quarks and an up quark and the proton of two up quarks and a down quark.)
Please help.
Can you compare the energy loss of electrons and protons due to the radiation they emit? In fact, I want to know which of the two loses more energy when it emits radiation.
In some models of the beginning of the universe, like for example in chaotic inflation, space would stop expanding in some points, creating hubble volumes that could experience different spontaneous symmetry breaking, which would result in different properties, such as different physical...
I looked in the instructor solutions, which are given by:
But I don't quite understand the solution, so I hope you can help me understand it.
First. Why do we even know we are working with wavefunctions with the quantum numbers n,l,m? Don't we only get these quantum numbers if the particles...
Most scientists believe neutrinos don't get their mass from the Higgs field due to their tiny mass compared to the next lightest particle(electron).During the electroweak epoch the rest particles were massless but neutrinos shouldn't be.
The neutrinos would then decay to the other massless ( i...
Neutrinos oscillate at different flavors while propagating in space and this is due to their mass.Any particle being massless cannot oscillate between different flavors while leptons with the mass of the electron and above are very unlikely to change their flavor. Will we able to detect a change...
Hey everyone,
I've got a question on converting bound protons into neutrons.
a. What are some methods used to achieve the proton-to-neutron conversion in atomic nuclei?
I'm familiar with particle scattering off a proton in the nucleus. I'm also aware of (n,p) reactions. Are there any other...
In many QFT textbooks, we usually see the calculations of vertex function, vacuum polarization and electron self-energy.
For example, one calculates the vacuum polarization to correct photon propagator $\langle{\Omega}|T\{A_{\mu}A_{\nu}\}|\Omega\rangle$, where $|\Omega\rangle$ is the ground...
I'm currently reading various papers on the violation of Lepton Flavour Universality in rare B-decays and I would appreciate some help in understanding the methodology for measuring the ratios in these decays.
Here is a quote from a recent paper from the LHCb collaboration (p.5):
My question...
Hi, I have attached the question to this post. I understand on the process on getting to the answer in that you use $$\arrowvert 2, 2\rangle=\arrowvert 1,1\rangle \otimes \arrowvert 1,1\rangle$$ and apply the isospin-lowering operator to obtain $$\arrowvert 2,1 \rangle$$. Then I understand you...
I'm currently working my way through Griffith's Elementary Particles text, and I'm looking to understand what's going on with the underlying Hilbert space of a system described using a Feynman diagram. I'm fairly well acquainted with non relativistic QM, but not much with QFT. In particular, I'd...
In decay processes where no mixing between quark families is present, the mediator of the weak force is the neutral ##Z^0## boson. If that is the case, how is it experimentally possible to detect neutral currents in processes such as: $$\bar{\nu}_\mu + e \rightarrow \bar{\nu}_\mu + e$$ What...
Hello,
I have been following Tong's notes on QFT and have found them to be a great introduction. I am almost at the end and am trying to figure out how to proceed. I have seen recommendations on David Skinner's notes, but I think I want to use a textbook either with Skinner's notes or maybe...
On page 105 of Peskin and Schroeder's book it says that the integral over ##d^2b## in the expression:
$$d\sigma = \left(\Pi_f \frac{d^3 p_f}{(2\pi)^3}\frac{1}{2E_f}\right) \int d^2b\left(\Pi_{i=A,B} \int \frac{d^3 k_i}{(2\pi)^3}\frac{\phi_i(k_i)}{\sqrt{2E_i}} \int \frac{d^3...
There is a Theoretical Physicist by the name of Garret Lisi. He gave a ted Talk on one of his unified physics theories that received a lot of attention. The reason why I am bringing him up is because he left academia after he finished his phd and moved to Maui. During his time there he found...
Hello everybody!
I am working on a code in which I need to study the dependence of ##<p_T>## vs ##p_L## (the average transverse momentum and the longitudinal momentum of a particle). I am looking for references, papers, books, etc. concerning this topic, but I have not been so lucky. My...
Hi all,
I have some doubts regarding the experiment of Madame Wu. I know a strong magnetic field is used to polarise the ##^{60}Co## nuclei, then we have an anthracene scintillator on the top of the sample which will detect the electron produced in the decay: ##^{60}Co \rightarrow...
Hi all. I'd personally consider the De Broglie wavelength λ=h/p, with p being the momentum of the electron beam. I get $$\lambda \simeq 0.6 \times 10^{-18} m $$ and since the radius of a quark is ## \leq 10^{-19} m ##, the proton structure can't be resolved. I'm quite sure there's something...
So I worked out the first part and obtained ##E_1 = 478.8MeV##, ##E_2 = 459.4MeV## and ##p = 0.49 MeV/c## but I can't quite wrap my head around the second part. Normally, I'd use the equation for s but I'm confused since I don't know the angle between the gamma rays.
Hi all,
I am in a bit of a funny situation where I need to pick up at least a cursory knowledge of QFT and particle physics in the space of two weeks. I borrowed "QFT and the Standard Model" by Schwartz but I have no idea how I should approach it. Ideally I'd pour through every page, but I...
I have a belief from something I read on the internet that the superscript 1 means that this is a singlet state so it can only hold one particle but then say 3^S_0 is a triplet so it could hold three. Then the first state I mentioned couldn't have a particle and an antiparticle in it , but the...
I'm working on some stuff for particle physics and I had a few questions I wanted to ask .
Heres the outline of the problem :
Establish which initial states of the ppbar system amongst 1^S_0, 3^S_1, 1^P_1, 3^P_0, 3^P_1, 3^P_2, 1^D_2, 3^D_1, 3^D_2, 3^D_3
the reaction ppbar->npi^0 can...
That said, my approach was to determine the energies and 3-momenta at the center of momentum reference frame for each particle, with a fixed s, and check it corresponds to each one of the above, but I'm having some trouble proving that, for example, E_A=\frac{s+m^2_A-m^2_B}{2\sqrt{s}}. I've...
It is interesting to consider why sufficiently slow work does not tend to increase entropy. We can model atoms as a collection of quantum particle-in-a-box’s; Compression work will tend to squeeze the size of these quantum boxes, reducing L.
Now, suppose instead that you left this quantum...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
m2 = E2 - p2 ([/B]
The Attempt at a Solution
I got stuck by not knowing how to handle the frames and I thought you can view the Z boson (CoM) frame, but then you simply get that mz = 2me