What is Piezoelectric: Definition and 143 Discussions

Piezoelectricity (, US: ) is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat. It is derived from the Greek word πιέζειν; piezein, which means to squeeze or press, and ἤλεκτρον ēlektron, which means amber, an ancient source of electric charge.The piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical states in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process: materials exhibiting the piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect, the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field. For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in the production of ultrasonic sound waves.French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity in 1880, and it has subsequently been exploited in a number of useful applications, such as the production and detection of sound, piezoelectric inkjet printing, generation of high voltages, clock generator in electronics, microbalances, to drive an ultrasonic nozzle, and ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies. It forms the basis for a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies, such as STM, AFM, MTA, and SNOM. It also finds everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters, push-start propane barbecues, used as the time reference source in quartz watches, as well as in amplification pickups for some guitars and triggers in most modern electronic drums.

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  1. mishima

    Finding Piezoelectric Crystal Frequency for Coherer experiment?

    Hi there, I've been fascinated by using simple coherers to pick up the electromagnetic signal from a spark (in imitation of early radio experiments, for high school education). I am using a push button ignitor (piezoelectric crystal) attached to a simple dipole antenna for the transmitter. When...
  2. K

    Individual project on Energy harvesting using piezoelectric material

    I have two questions: 1) Is it possible to cut the material with a laser cutter or scissors or do I need to have a specific tool? 2) What is the best way to attach the PZT-5H material to the beam but it can be easily detached for using it on another beam ( so no epoxy glue)?Thank you
  3. hugo_faurand

    Amplifier for piezoelectric sensor, OP Amp circuit

    Hello everyone ! I'm working with a piezoelectric cell and I need to retrieve the variation of the charge of the cell as a voltage signal. I found this circuit (a charge amplifier) with an OP Amp ( here the piezo cell is represented as the current source with the capacitor and the resistor on...
  4. hugo_faurand

    Get electrical signal of a piezoelectric with ultrasound

    Hello everyone ! I'm working on ultrasound probes, and I wanted to measure the electrical signal generated by a piezoelectric device (a transducer). Here is a sketch of the experiment : The goal of the experiment is to compare the electrical signal of the piezoelectric cell and compare it...
  5. E

    To derive the piezoelectric effect in crystals

    For a nice cubic non-centrosymmetric crystal like quartz/##\mathrm{SiO_2}## we can imagine that on application of stress the tetrahedral coordination polyhedra become distorted, and the central ion is displaced by a fraction ##\lambda## of the cell parameter ##a##. The total polarisation...
  6. A

    A Piezoelectricity and the Lorentz Harmonic Oscillator?

    Hi! As I outlined in my https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/hello-reality-anyone-familiar-with-the-davisson-germer-experiment.985063/post-6305937, I'm curious to ask if there is anyone with knowledge on the theory of the piezoelectric effect on this forum? I think it's fascinating how a...
  7. Dishsoap

    A question re: piezoelectric materials and resonators

    I'm new to the world of acoustics, and I've been reading up on various methods for wireless communication/sensing through ultrasound, especially with piezoelectric materials such as AlN. Fundamentally, I can't seem to find a difference between thin-film bulk acoustic resonators (1 um thick) and...
  8. K

    Piezoelectric Quartz with Pressurized Mercury Vortex

    I am curious if it would be possible to put a quartz crystal at the bottom of strong cylinder vial with half the crystal hanging out the bottom (but sealed) and have mercury on top of it and then pressurized if it would create a constant vortex? If the mechanical force of the pressure from the...
  9. J

    Experimental procedure for growing piezoelectric crystals

    At school I and a handful of other kids are devising an experiment to send up to ISS to test it over a period of 30 days next year. (Yep, we're quite fortunate to have this opportunity!) We've chosen to grow piezoelectric crystals using (super)saturated solution of the piezoelectric crystal...
  10. J

    Growing piezoelectric crystals experiment

    Homework Statement I'm not sure if this is a forum for these kinds of things. But anyways, at school I and a handful of other kids are devising an experiment to send up to ISS to test it over a period of 30 days next year. (Yep, we're quite fortunate to have this opportunity!) We've chosen to...
  11. A

    Piezoelectric crystal and air pressure

    Will air pressure induce a voltage of a piezoelectric crystal or does it need to be mechanically compressed? My guess is that it would depend on the permeability of the crystal
  12. A

    Piezoelectric and air pressure

    I was just wondering if anyone could explain to me what would happen to a piezoelectric crystal on a closed circuit in a pressurised vessel?
  13. S

    Piezoelectric Effect and EM Radiation

    It's my understanding that deforming a piezoelectric crystal causes electric charges to build up on the outer faces of the material. What I would like to know is if these charges behave like the free charges in a metal. More specifically, does deforming a piezoelectric crystal effect how em...
  14. D

    Why does piezoelectric need amplifying?

    Homework Statement Descibe[/B] in detail the contruction of a piezoelectric device (ultrasound machiene) and how it works. And explain why the singal from that device need amplification Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Electrical current passes to the piezoelectric crystal...
  15. J

    Conversion of Piezoelectric coefficients

    Hello everyone, I am interested on simulating the converse Piezoelectric effect of materials and I have given the mechanical (Youngs modulus and Poissoin's ratio) and electric material properties (Electric Permittivity, Piezoelectric coupling matrix etc). However from the literature I got...
  16. Jalon Young

    Quick Question about a Piezoelectric shoe for project

    I am currently working on a piezoelectric shoe and the objective of the project is to charge a phone I am aware a phone is DC and piezoelectric disc generate AC I know I need a bridge rectifier to convert My question is: Would I generate more volts if I Use a bridge rectifier to convert AC to DC...
  17. nabs16

    Damping effect in piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Hi, I have to make a report on an energy harvesting system using piezolectric materials by comparing two methods each other which are: the standard technique (rectifier bridge+filtering capacitance) and the nonlinear technique, by adding to the standard device a switch and an inductor in...
  18. nabs16

    Ferroelectric materials versus Piezoelectric materials

    Hello every one. Ferroelectric materials have spantaneous polarization but i read in many articles that these ceramics are polarized by applying an electric field. Why polarize ceramics that are already polarized ? Thanks.
  19. Sasho Andonov

    Piezoelectric effect -- How long does a stressed crystal produce a DC voltage?

    I need help regarding piezolectric effect... If I add DC voltage to piezoelectric crystal it will change its dimension (length) and vice versa: if I put pressure on piezoelectric crystal it willl produce DC voltage on its surfaces... But I am wondering how long this voltage will last? If I keep...
  20. nabs16

    Weakly & strongly coupled structures in piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Hello everyone (and sorry for my average english), I have to make a report on an energy harvesting system from vibrations with piezoelectric elements. During my research, i always read that there two cases in a piezoelectric harvesting system which are : weakly coupled strucutre and strongly...
  21. Esfand Yar Ali

    Piezoelectric transducer current

    How can I increase the output current from a piezoelectric trasnducer using PZT ceramic? The requirement is about 1.2 Amp but currently I'm only getting about 0.2 mA per unit.
  22. P

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Hello, I am an student of Engineering and I come a cross of a doubt that I would like to investigate a bit more. I would like some information or some directions to the right path for the following. I would like to know how could I calculate the harvesting energy of an area for a piezoelectric...
  23. T

    Discover the Piezoelectric Equations for Ceramic Multi-Layer Components

    What are the governing equations to determine the output energy of a ceramic rectangular multi-layer piezoelectric component after one actuation? I am familiar with most of the properties and looking to characterize a piezo component from the direct piezo effect.
  24. G

    Dielectric or Piezoelectric: What's the Difference?

    Hi, What is the difference between dielectric material and piezoelectric material ? Even Wikipedia use exactly the same figure for illustration. I googled, Both of them is - material between plates - polarization, dipole of molecule As far as I understood from google, When material is...
  25. P

    Damping coefficient in RLC model (piezoelectric transducer)

    Hello! I am a university student working on a project regarding a piezoelectric patch transducer, and RLC modelling of said transducer. Edit: After reading the rule post i think i should clarify this is not coursework homework, this is a thesis project. The short version of my question is how...
  26. N

    I How does a Point Force Affect a Piezoelectric?

    So, let's imagine we have a sphere of metal with a piezoelectric film all around the outside of it. If we applied a point force to one area of the sphere, how would the piezoelectric material react? Would it compress or expand at that point, and how can we measure the force based on the response...
  27. M

    Polarization-electric field hysteresis loop of a piezoelectric film.

    Hello, I have piezoelectric film. I want to characterize ferroectricity. which exact equipment and circuit are used for measuring polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. Thanks
  28. R

    Resonant frequency of Piezoelectric material

    So i have a piezoelectric film deposited in the metal substrate and i want to determine the resonant frequency. Basically i can determine the resonant frequency base on the dimensions. But i need to proved it using experimental set-up. So i applied AC Voltage to the material then the material...
  29. smak64

    I Piezoelectric crystal energy restoration

    Let's say that I deform some piezoelectric tile and the energy(Fs here) is stored in form of some stress energy and some electrical energy(distribution of the centres of charges looking as a capacitor). Now I remove the force and then remove the electrical energy somehow so by the inverse piezo...
  30. Sveral

    Can a Piezoelectric Transducer Double as a Microphone?

    Hello, I wanted to know, if a piezoelectric transducer can be used similarly to a microphone to output sound, when connected to the user? Here`s an example...
  31. R

    Vibrational frequency of Piezoelectric effect

    when a piezoelectric material experience a stress it generates voltage, and also when you applied voltage the piezo-material experience a vibrational frequency. Using oscilloscope we can determine the induced frequency of the piezo-material with respect to the applied voltage. Now given the...
  32. M

    Laplace transform for a piezoelectric acceletometer

    Homework Statement FIGURE 4(a) represents a system to measure acceleration (i.e. an accelerometer). It shows a piezoelectric crystal that is connected to an amplifier and display via a length of coaxial cable2.A piezoelectric current is produced when the crystal is distorted by an applied...
  33. J

    Maximum theoretical power from piezoelectric harvesting

    Hi there... I have an application where I know the vibration frequency/force/acceleration of the source... How can I find the maximum theoretical power output (in mw/watts...) of a tuned piezo where its resonance is the same as the source vibration frequency...
  34. salaheddine

    How can i calculate the time delay in arduino?

    hi every one , I'm a student in university , i have a projet it's about calculate speed of waves in liquid by to piezo electrique , one workd like emmeter and the other receppter , the distance betwin the two piezo is fixe , the probleme is i nedd to calculat the time betwin the moment who i...
  35. T

    Optically Transparent Piezoelectric Materials

    Does anyone know of any optically transparent (and preferably thin) piezoelectric materials I could use for a science fair project converting pressure on the glass of touch screens to electrical energy?
  36. R

    What is the best for piezoelectric material?

    Based on my research the effects of the holes, electrons, acceptor and donor concentration is telling you the direction of the polarization and the conventional sign of the electric potential generated. But up until now, i don't know what is the best material to used for piezoelectric material...
  37. Q

    The piezoelectric effect in ferroelectrics

    Hey, I am confused, what is the exact reason for the appearance of a voltage upon a mechanical stress at a ferroelectric material like a BaTiO3 Perovskite? Below the Curie temperature the structure is no more cubic but tetragonal, let's say c-site is now longer than a- and b-site. And of course...
  38. P

    Passive vibration suppression using piezoelectric elements?

    I am looking at one idea to passive vibration supression that involves "a resistive shunt to a piezoelectric material" but I can not find a lot of info outside of papers that I would have to pay for. does anyone know and can explain some detail about this method?
  39. A

    What is the correct way to wire a piezoelectric circuit on a breadboard?

    Hi, I am having trouble implementing a circuit diagram onto a breadboard. The circuit involves a piezoelectric ceramic, which when pressure is applied, it should create enough power to activate 9V and light up an Led for a second. When I put the circuit together on the breadboard, to the best of...
  40. G

    Why does Piezoelectric output voltage dropped when load is added?

    Hi, im doing a piezoelectric energy harvesting project with a standard harvestings circuit consisting of a full bridge rectifier, smoothing capacitor and a resistive load. I managed to get around 28V after rectification without connecting to a smoothing capacitor and load, but when i added a...
  41. G

    Piezoelectric strain rate and frequency of applied voltage

    If one were to apply, for example, 60 Hz AC to a piezoelectric material, would the strain rate be 60 Hz? I am not entirely sure if I am using "strain rate" in its proper sense; I use it merely to describe what I imagine would be the rate at which the material expands and contracts while exposed...
  42. Y

    Generate electrical energy from vibrating transformers

    Hey guys, how are you? I just have an idea but can't figure it out how to solve it. Is it possible to generate electrical energy from a (high power) transformer vibration using piezoelectrics?
  43. nar5i

    Can Piezoelectric Plates Effectively Charge a Phone?

    I am doing my wrong project from school. Its basically a science fair but only for the students in the class. I came up with the idea to use piezoelectric plates to charge a capacitor that then charges one of those portable po charge a phone. I know I'm not the first one do this, but I do want...
  44. S

    Find Expansion Speed of Piezoelectric Actuator | 16+ mph

    Does anyone know how to find the "expansion" speed of a piezoelectric actuator? I tried displacement x frequency in hertz x 2 x 60 x 60 and then converted from um to miles. I'm getting 16> mph or an actuator that displaces 20um at 200,000 hertz. I thought these things moved fast, approaching...
  45. M

    Piezoelectric energy harvester

    Yesterday I received a schematic diagram from my lecturer, it about piezoelectric energy harvester. Well, I'm not sure what the function of the transistor BC548. I think the transistors function as amplifier. Am I true? If someone could explain it to me detail, that will be better. Thank you and...
  46. ryanuser

    Efficiency of piezoelectric materials

    I was told that "piezoelectric materials can become more efficient if they were made to reduce their elasticity (the ones such as PVDF films that are flexiable).This is because the external energy is used to force the film back to its original shape just like when a spring is squashed; so most...
  47. I

    Do dimensions of a piezoelectric material affect voltage?

    Consider a block of a piezoelectric material sandwiched between two parallel plate conductors, sort of like a parallel plate capacitor with a piezoelectric material as its "dielectric." If applying the same pressure to two of these configurations, does the thickness of the piezoelectric block...
  48. SmritiB

    Piezoelectric crystal compression (in cm)

    How much does a Piezoelectric crystal (say PZT) compress when applied the maximum amount of force it can withstand ? also it would be very helpful if someone could tell me how much is this force typically ?
  49. ryanuser

    Piezo crystals and current generation

    hey can a piezo crystal generate current when it is hit as well as when it is exposed to sound?