What is Software: Definition and 997 Discussions

Software is a collection of instructions and data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, including programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
At the lowest programming level, executable code consists of machine language instructions supported by an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU) or a graphics processing unit (GPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also invoke one of many input or output operations, for example displaying some text on a computer screen; causing state changes which should be visible to the user. The processor executes the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or is interrupted by the operating system. As of 2015, most personal computers, smartphone devices and servers have processors with multiple execution units or multiple processors performing computation together, and computing has become a much more concurrent activity than in the past.
The majority of software is written in high-level programming languages. They are easier and more efficient for programmers because they are closer to natural languages than machine languages. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or an interpreter or a combination of the two. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, which has strong correspondence to the computer's machine language instructions and is translated into machine language using an assembler.

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  1. tommm222

    I Simulation of a Bragg chamber

    Me and my colleagues need to analyse data from a Bragg chamber. We have sources of Cm244, Am241, Np237 sending alpha particles in the chamber which is fill with Argon and CH4 at 1%. Is there any software that can simulate di situation ? I downloaded SRIM but i’m not sure it is the best one for...
  2. X

    How Can Quantum Mechanics Influence Software Engineering?

    Interested in foundations of physics, Quantum Mechanics.
  3. G

    Software for calculting DFT and Raman spectra for Windows

    Dear Friends! Please recommend a program for performing DFT calculations on Windows. It should also be capable of calculating Raman spectra. It would be highly desirable if the program will be free. Sincerely, Aleksandr
  4. MatinSAR

    F(x) row isn't shown in origin software

    My PC : There is no option ! Origin's website:
  5. F

    Is an API Always Necessary for Server-Client Communication?

    It is clear that a server and a client are programs communicative iwth each other using one or more protocols (HTTP, TCP, etc.) I conceptually understand what an API is: it is like an intermediary between two programs that makes integration easy. For example, we build app A and want to connect...
  6. Greg Bernhardt

    Announcement Small PF update this weekend

    We'll be updating PF software this coming weekend. Hoping to fix some pesky bugs! Shouldn't be down for more than 15-20min. Likely Saturday morning.
  7. U

    Download software at HDD or SSD

    Goal is to operate software as fast as possible. If my download folder is at HDD , after install software is at c/program files (SSD), will this affect software speed or ask in other words, does software use files from download folder during operation? If software use these files during...
  8. D

    I Numerical Relativity -- Software to solve the Einstein field equations?

    Hello, Has anyone here used software to solve the Einstein field equations? If so, what software have you used, or what software do you recommend? Is it possible to use something like MATLAB to play around with the field equations?
  9. chwala

    Finding the Fourier cosine series for ##f(x)=x^2##

    I was just going through my old notes on this i.e The concept is straight forward- only challenge phew :cool: is the integration bit...took me round and round a little bit... that is for ##A_n## part. My working pretty ok i.e we shall realize the text solution. Kindly find my own working...
  10. Lathropian

    Job Skills Hoping to find suggestions on time management

    Hi All, Thank you for the wonderful replies on my other post, much appreciated and I will try to be of as much help as I can for others. I am in the midst of polishing up my system for time management and could use some help. Right now I use a big excel spreadsheet containing lots of lists...
  11. benagastov

    Error while Executing "Make all" code for Quantum Espresso in Colab

    Good evening, Now I start learning Quantum Espresso and I tried to install it on Google Colab, since I already get convenient and its my habit to do all computation in Physics using google Colab. Sometimes I rent cloud gpu if I need bigger RAM and GPU when I have heavy load. You can see the...
  12. L

    What does Damage Equivalent Load (DEL) mean?

    Hello all, I am using an open source software called openFAST, and it shows various outputs such as the force along the x axis as the blade rotates around. I then use a python script that uses the following equation: where: and feq = 2.1Hrz for my example and T is 60 seconds This is what...
  13. Sciencemaster

    I How can I model squeezed states in 3D optical modelling software?

    I would like to model squeezed light and its evolution (such as when passing through lenses after being generated) using optics software such as OptiFDTD or ZEMAX. However, I don’t see any way to make such states…my plan was to simulate an Optical Parametric Amplifier to generate these states...
  14. Z

    How does FEM software compute inertial forces?

    Hello I have alwayes seen FEM applications for static structures while each " finite element" of a bar linkage mechanisms should be subjected also to a variable inertial force besides its constant weight how do FEM softwares compute inertial forces ?
  15. Frabjous

    Translation software use in threads

    Has there been any thought about a button for the poster to self-identify that the poster is using translation software? Edit: this is now a linguistics thread:frown:
  16. sbrothy

    Clothes designed to trick facial recognition software

    https://nypost.com/2023/01/25/clothing-designer-tricks-ai-powered-face-recognition/amp/"Err boss? The computer insists the driver was a giraffe but we got the license plate... No wait..."
  17. kolleamm

    Exploring ChatGPT - AI Software & Its Impressive Capabilities

    I was wondering what everyone else thought about ChatGPT, the new AI software that is apparently pretty good at answering questions. After playing around with it for a few minutes I must say that it is pretty impressive. It's able to answer my coding questions quite well and describe concepts to...
  18. M

    A Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM) software recommendation

    Hello, I am looking for FDEM software that can do poroelasticity and has a hydraulic solver besides a mechanics solver.
  19. Grinkle

    Schematic capture / wiring diagram software

    It has been many years since I was an Orcad expert - way back in the DOS epoch. Once my job functions changed from design to other-than-design, I stopped using such software. I now have a need to do some design and some architectural level hook-up planning and I'm looking for free software to...
  20. R

    Job Skills Any advice for a new grad looking to be a Software Engineer?

    Recently graduated with a degree in Computer Science. I have been sending applications daily and got to final rounds with a FAANG company but they went on a hiring freeze. I recently again got a final interview with another FAANG company at the end of the month and have an online assessment with...
  21. E

    What is the difference between DFT and TD-DFT in Gaussian 09 software?

    Homework Statement:: difference between DFT and TDDFT in Gaussian 09 software? Relevant Equations:: hello , I hope this message finds you well Please I want to know what is the difference between DFT and time‐dependent density functional theory TD-DFT and why we use it in the measurement of...
  22. Ranger Mike

    Part print to CAD model software

    Hello all, Is there software that coverts a 2D part print to 3D Cad model with PMI? If you have a hand drawn mechanical drawing , 'blue print" part print with the classic human drawn tolerancing, can it be scanned to software to make a 3D CAD model with all the PM!? thank you rm
  23. L

    Programs Software Development Degree vs CompSci Degree

    I was thinking which degree would open more doors? Would employers look down on me for having a Software Dev degree? Which degree has a better roi?
  24. A

    Other Transitioning from Theoretical Physics to Software Dev: Steps & Difficulties

    I'm going into my final year of undergraduate theoretical physics. I have had a bit of a deviation in what I want to do and would really like to work in software development in the future. How difficult would it be for me to deviate from my current position and what steps should I take to to...
  25. Alexanddros81

    I I want to know which software was used to create vector calculus graph

    Hi. I have the Marsden an Tromba vector calculus book 6th edition. I was wondering which software was used to create the books graphs. I attach two graphs as an example. Thanks
  26. A

    Call recording permissions in video conferencing software

    Do the Host only get the permissions of call recording in video conferencing software? I.e. Teams, Google meet, Zoom, Skype etc. I mean the Host who creates the meeting and invite other participants to join the meeting on a specific date and time only has the permission to record the call. The...
  27. F

    How is COMSOL compared to other solver software packages?

    in terms of accuracy, solvers etc.
  28. VVS2000

    Drawing physics Diagrams with online software

    Hello everyone, does anyone know any online websites/software to draw detailed physics diagrams, Like the ones we see in textbooks and research papers. I wanted to draw detailed ray diagram of a lens with mentioning all the angles and refracted rays which is supposed to depict a certain...
  29. shivajikobardan

    MHB What is minimum requirement vs specific requirements to be called in as intelligent agent for any software code piece?

    https://uobrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10547/223815/ESWA%20agent%20paper%20-v2.pdf;jsessionid=16B243A8F6C1FC1242A75969D18D00B7?sequence=5 here is some information but i am unable to dcode what is minimum requirement vs specific requirements. can you help me a bit in this case?
  30. LCSphysicist

    What is the most advanced software that simulates human behaviour?

    I have been really curious about the possibility of simulate the human's communication hability using computer language/softwares. Most specifically, i have been thinking that the most difficult part of the simulation would be to "cofide" the level of randomness+logic that the human brain can...
  31. A

    Image comparison software (similarity and differences)

    Images comparison What are the best softwares available for comparing two images having similarity and differences? Two photos each of Margaret and Enid. 1 Margaret's first photo with her second photo comparison. 2 Enid's first photo with her second photo comparision. 3 Margaret's first...
  32. A

    Is there any software that can make a window which has dedicated cursor?

    Hello, I'm searching for software that can make me another window which has it's own cursor and can launch app or game in it. Something like virtual machine. I'm making macro for games and I want the macro to work on second desktop, without using my cursor.
  33. LCSphysicist

    Alternative software to geant4?

    I need to simulate a gaseous detector involving UV Lamp's. I have tried using Geant4. Now i think this says by itself, two geant4's weak point: Gaseous medium, it is relatively bad at simulate in it, and low energy gamma gun, near 30 eV, which is too low for Geant4's physicslists. Garfield was...
  34. JD_PM

    Software advice on fitting an orifice within a cylinder

    I have a stp file (PF does not support it so I cannot upload it here. If there is a way I can share it please let me know) of an orifice and I want to create a new file where the orifice is fit inside a cylinder. What software do you recommend me to use? Thank you! :)
  35. A

    Musical instrument training software

    Similar to Flight and Power plant training simulation softwares, is it possible to design and develop musical instruments training software simulators? Examples : Guitar,Piano,Violin,Trumpet, Drums,Saxophone etc. If Not, What are the challenges for designing and developing Musical instruments...
  36. VVS2000

    Alternative video analysis software for tracker

    Hello, I wanted to know some software used for plotting the positions of a point mass. I did an oscillation experiment and I used the tracker app, but I cannot get it to track my point mass Please mention if any alternative software exists for carrying out my experiment. Thanks in advance
  37. Twigg

    A Software for Converting Spectral Density to Modified Allan Deviation

    Mathematically, you can convert between a power spectral density (PSD) and the modified allan variance as follows: $$\sigma_y^2 (\tau) = \int_0^{\infty} \frac{G_\nu(f)}{\nu^2} \times 32 \frac{(\sin(\pi f \tau/2))^4 \times |\sin(\pi f \tau)|^2}{(\pi \tau f)^4} df$$ I was wondering if anyone knew...
  38. Iwanttolearnphysics

    Propagating Uncertainties in acceleration when using a video software

    Here's why I'm confused: I recorded a video of a ball moving across the floor and uploaded it to the video analysis software I used. I had to track the moving ball while it moved and I did this while the video was playing in slow motion through the video analysis software. put a dot in the...
  39. sophiecentaur

    Free simulation software for antenna and feed modelling

    I want to be able to predict the performance of modest (Amateur) Radio Telescope Equipment. Most of what I can find from a basic search will cost a lot of money. (Not surprisingly). I located a free, student, version of CST Suite from Dassault and it appears to be very powerful and can deal...
  40. A

    Is it possible to deduce the software from the hardware activity?

    Suppose one knows well the laws of physics but knows nothing about computers and IT. Would one be able to deduce how a computer works only by studying its hardware? Could one rebuild the software code and understand its meaning only by looking at the internal flow of bits in its CPU?
  41. S

    Substantial programming skills, and software versus programming

    @StatGuy2000 said in another topic this part quoted here: The name of the topic was "From math PhD to space industry-possible?" The listing of what was suggested for the PhD student to learn looks like a large amount. Four different programming languages, although he did not say to what level...
  42. F

    Unusual boundary conditions in FEA software

    For a 2D problem with unknown displacements u(x,y) and v(x,y), is it allowed to give such a set of BCs u(0,y)=1 and vy(0,y)=0, the former being a displacement BC, the latter being a force BC (vy is the y strain)? How is this implemented in FEA software?
  43. V

    Physics Transitioning to Physics after 10+ years in software, low gpa

    Hello everyone, I am from India.I completed my Bachelors in Engineering, ECE to specific from a very average Indian college in year 2006 with many backlogs and year gaps. Since then I have been working in the IT industry.I have a undergraduate percentage of 56%, using...
  44. Q

    How to disable access to old data with newest version of software?

    Here are two examples: 1. Microsoft Excel. If you buy the newest version of Microsoft Office, it is able to open and read all files that were created with the older versions of Microsoft Office. Let's say that I have an older version of Microsoft Excel and I create some files with it. Later...
  45. Erik Ayer

    I Software for optical simulation with interference

    I would like to simulate both double-slit and Mach-Zehnder interference, with some other common optical components such as lenses, beam splitters, mirrors, and wave plates. Is there something online for this or a program that can be downloaded and run on either Linux or Windows? Thanks, Erik
  46. fsonnichsen

    Seek Open Source Web Design Software for Serial Controlled Systems

    I am hoping this forum may be a good page for this question. Not sure where else to post. I have been asked if I can write a user GUI to control a system that we build--the system is made with the fairly common electronics board designs and PIC MPs and presently is controlled from a...
  47. W

    Is the use of remote access software viable?

    Hi, The issue of granting/using remote access to a computer came about today re the topic of RDP ( Remote Desk Protocol) and Team Viewer. Obviously some security measures are needed to prevent 3rd party access . Any comments on the level of security needed for a stand alone PC? How about for add...
  48. diegzumillo

    Job Skills Switching careers to software development

    Hi all In my country, and with the pandemic aggravating affairs, an academic career seems unlikely for me at the moment. It's what I have been preparing for, I finished my PhD and started looking into post doc positions nearby, but no luck so far. So people advised me to try becoming a software...
  49. B

    Software to determine the note and its register

    Hello everybody, I have .wav musical files that reproduce the sound of certain notes. I am looking for a software that is able to determine the note and its register. Can any of you be able to recommend one, possibly free and for Linux? Thank you very much!