Are there galaxies with 2 cores?

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In summary, galactic collisions and mergers can result in two separate cores orbiting a common center of gravity, but these dual-core systems are short-lived and eventually merge into a single core. While some galaxies, such as M31 and the Antenna galaxies, display double nuclei, simulations show that these are not true dual-core systems. This is known as the final parsec problem and it is still not fully understood how two supermassive black holes can get close enough to merge.
  • #1
Gerinski
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When discussing about galactic 'collisions' and mergers, such as the predicted future encounter between the Milky Way and Andromeda, it is often said that actual collisions among stars are extremely unlikely, it's just that the mutual gravitational influence of both galaxies on each other will gradually deform, distort, stretch or squeeze the galaxies' shapes, they will gradually engage in a gravitational dance around common centers of gravity, and slowly, if the gravitational attraction is strong enough to maintain the bond, the two structures will eventually evolve into some new shape as a new single and larger galaxy.

Assuming that the galactic cores (say both include a super-massive black hole) are following paths far from heading to each other head-on, they will also enter a gravitational dance around a common center of gravity. And all the stars from both galaxies would get involved into a highly complex motion affected by the common center of gravity of both galactic centers, and possibly by each of them individually if they pass close enough to any of them. This could in principle last for billions of years before the two cores get closer and closer to each other and finally merge into a new single galactic core, combining the mass of the two previous cores.

My question is, have we observed any such galaxies which display 2 separate cores resulting from a relatively recent merger? and if so, how do they look like? how they behave? what are their most interesting features?
And in case we have not detected any such dual-core galaxies, what would explain that fact? Wouldn't it be natural to expect that such galaxies must be out there in the right environments?

TX!
 
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  • #3
Gerinski said:
My question is, have we observed any such galaxies which display 2 separate cores resulting from a relatively recent merger?

I do not believe we have. M31 has a double nucleus, but simulations show it's much more likely to have only a single SMBH at point "P2". The reason is that the lifetime of such a two core system is exceedingly short before they merge.
 
  • #4
Vanadium 50 said:
The reason is that the lifetime of such a two core system is exceedingly short before they merge.
Isn't that based purely on observation?

As far as I understand, astrophysicists are stuck on the maths of what actually makes them merge. I was under the impression that SMBHs fall into each other by eating material by ejecting it, both alter it's momentum allowing them to fall into lower orbits. The linked article indicates that when they get within a few light years of each other, all of that material is gone though, no one is sure how they get any closer other than by gravitational waves, which are negligible at those distances.
 
  • #5
Gerinski said:
...
My question is, have we observed any such galaxies which display 2 separate cores resulting from a relatively recent merger? and if so, how do they look like? how they behave? what are their most interesting features?...

Antenna galaxies ngc4038 and ngc 4039

220px-Antennae_Galaxies_NGC4038_NGC4039_Goran_Nilsson_%26_The_Liverpool_Telescop.jpg

The mice galaxies are not yet merged
300px-Merging_galaxies_NGC_4676_%28captured_by_the_Hubble_Space_Telescope%29.jpg


newjerseyrunner said:
...within a few light years of each other, all of that material is gone though, ...

My impression was that the space with few stars was the core. That would be 2 black holes inside of 1 merged core.
 

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  • #6
newjerseyrunner said:
t when they get within a few light years of each other, all of that material is gone though, no one is sure how they get any closer

I think its closer than that. In cores the distances between stars are measured in light-minutes or hours, not years. You can get quite close before you run out of stars to eject. But even if it were light years, on galactic scales, I would say two SMBH's within even a few light years of each other in the center of the core means you have one core, not two. Where you draw the "edge" of the core is not well defined, but for any reasonable definition, the core is dominated by stars and not their SMBH's.
 
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  • #7
Thanks for all the answers
 
  • #8
Glad to know about this. Thank you so much for sharing.
 
  • #9
Vanadium 50 said:
I think its closer than that. In cores the distances between stars are measured in light-minutes or hours, not years. You can get quite close before you run out of stars to eject. But even if it were light years, on galactic scales, I would say two SMBH's within even a few light years of each other in the center of the core means you have one core, not two. Where you draw the "edge" of the core is not well defined, but for any reasonable definition, the core is dominated by stars and not their SMBH's.
It is called final parsec problem - a few light years are right.
 
  • #10
wow nice! Thanks for placing the link here.
 

Related to Are there galaxies with 2 cores?

1. What are "galaxies with 2 cores"?

Galaxies with 2 cores, also known as double-core galaxies, are galaxies that have two distinct and separate central regions, or cores, instead of the typical single core found in most galaxies.

2. How common are galaxies with 2 cores?

Galaxies with 2 cores are relatively rare, making up only about 0.1% of all known galaxies in the universe.

3. What causes galaxies to have 2 cores?

There are a few possible explanations for the formation of double-core galaxies. One theory is that they are the result of two smaller galaxies merging together, with their cores remaining intact. Another possibility is that the galaxy's core may have split into two due to gravitational interactions with nearby galaxies.

4. Can galaxies with 2 cores support life?

It is unlikely that galaxies with 2 cores can support life as we know it. These galaxies tend to have highly disturbed and chaotic environments, making it difficult for planets to form and sustain stable conditions for life to thrive.

5. How do scientists study galaxies with 2 cores?

Scientists use various methods to study galaxies with 2 cores, including imaging with telescopes, spectroscopy to analyze the light emitted by the galaxies, and computer simulations to model their formation and evolution. They also study the properties of stars and gas within these galaxies to better understand their structures and dynamics.

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