Say I have three different circuits, each with three 9V batteries: CIRCUIT ONE Parallel 9v Battery 1 -> Coil 1 -> 9v Battery 1 9v Battery 2 -> Coil 1 -> 9v Battery 2 9v Battery 3 -> Coil 1 -> 9v Battery 3 CIRCUIT TWO Parallel 9v Battery 1 -> Coil 2 -> 9v Battery 2 9v Battery 2 -> Coil 2 -> 9v Battery 3 9v Battery 3 -> Coil 2 -> 9v Battery 1 CIRCUIT THREE Series 9v Battery 1 -> Wire 1 -> 9v Battery 2 9v Battery 2 -> Wire 2 -> 9v Battery 3 9v Battery 3 -> Coil 3 -> 9v Battery 1 Am I right in saying that the voltage of the first two circuits is 9V and the voltage of the circuit in series is 27V? Wire 1 and Wire 2 are connections between batteries which are not used to do work. Coils 1 and 2 are used to connect batteries 1, 2, and 3 in parallel. Coil 3 is just like Wires 1 and 2 except it is being used to perform work on a permanent magnet. Which circuit, then, is most suited to utilizing the greatest amount of electricity? I would say its circuit 2 (though circuit 1 is almost exactly the same). Circuit three wastes the current that travels through Wires 1 and 2 unless these wires are used to do work. Some people say it makes little difference whether you use series or parallel, in that you will get the same energy. But to me, putting the ends of the battery together without doing anything with the current in between is the same as shorting the battery. I would expect the input emf between the batteries to be left unchanged whether they are used to produce work or not. What do you think?