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*(x, y)*in Cartesian system, there is such

*(r, θ)*in Polar system, so

*x = r * cosθ*and

*y = r * sinθ*

how you can calculate what corresponds to

*(Δx, Δy)*in polar system?

how come

*?*

**Δx * Δy = r * Δr * Δθ**Maybe this is very stupid question and has obvious answer, but I haven't been practicing higher math since the university (8 years since graduation), but now I need this proof to prove that for normal distribution the sum of all probabilities in (-∞; ∞) equals to 1.