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**Bit threads and holographic entanglement**

Michael Freedman, Matthew Headrick

(Submitted on 1 Apr 2016)

The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.00388

**Dynamics of the Area Law of Entanglement Entropy**

Stefan Leichenauer, Mudassir Moosa, Michael Smolkin

(Submitted on 1 Apr 2016)

We study the evolution of the universal area law of entanglement entropy when the Hamiltonian of the system undergoes a time dependent perturbation. In particular, we derive a general formula for the time dependent first order correction to the area law under the assumption that the field theory resides in a vacuum state when a small time-dependent perturbation of a relevant coupling constant is turned on. Using this formula, we carry out explicit calculations in free field theories deformed by a time dependent mass, whereas for a generic QFT we show that the time dependent first order correction is governed by the spectral function defining the two-point correlation function of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We also carry out holographic calculations based on the HRT proposal and find qualitative and, in certain cases, quantitative agreement with the field theory calculations.