#### atyy

Science Advisor

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I think

http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.2994

Sukhwinder Singh, Robert N. C. Pfeifer, Guifre Vidal

(Submitted on 17 Jul 2009)

Tensor network decompositions offer an efficient description of certain many-body states of a lattice system and are the basis of a wealth of numerical simulation algorithms. We discuss how to incorporate a global symmetry, given by a compact, completely reducible group G, in tensor network decompositions and algorithms. This is achieved by considering tensors that are invariant under the action of the group G. Each symmetric tensor decomposes into two types of tensors: degeneracy tensors, containing all the degrees of freedom, and structural tensors, which only depend on the symmetry group. In numerical calculations, the use of symmetric tensors ensures the preservation of the symmetry, allows selection of a specific symmetry sector, and significantly reduces computational costs. On the other hand, the resulting tensor network can be interpreted as a superposition of exponentially many spin networks. Spin networks are used extensively in loop quantum gravity, where they represent states of quantum geometry. Our work highlights their importance also in the context of tensor network algorithms, thus setting the stage for cross-fertilization between these two areas of research.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.3773

Authors: J. Eisert, M. Cramer, M.B. Plenio

(Submitted on 28 Aug 2008 (v1), last revised 16 Jan 2009 (this version, v3))

Physical interactions in quantum many-body systems are typically local: Individual constituents interact mainly with their few nearest neighbors. This locality of interactions is inherited by a decay of correlation functions, but also reflected by scaling laws of a quite profound quantity: The entanglement entropy of ground states. This entropy of the reduced state of a subregion often merely grows like the boundary area of the subregion, and not like its volume, in sharp contrast with an expected extensive behavior. Such "area laws" for the entanglement entropy and related quantities have received considerable attention in recent years. They emerge in several seemingly unrelated fields, in the context of black hole physics, quantum information science, and quantum many-body physics where they have important implications on the numerical simulation of lattice models. In this Colloquium we review the current status of area laws in these fields. Center stage is taken by rigorous results on lattice models in one and higher spatial dimensions. The differences and similarities between bosonic and fermionic models are stressed, area laws are related to the velocity of information propagation, and disordered systems, non-equilibrium situations, classical correlation concepts, and topological entanglement entropies are discussed. A significant proportion of the article is devoted to the quantitative connection between the entanglement content of states and the possibility of their efficient numerical simulation. We discuss matrix-product states, higher-dimensional analogues, and states from entanglement renormalization and conclude by highlighting the implications of area laws on quantifying the effective degrees of freedom that need to be considered in simulations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.2393

O. Buerschaper, M. Aguado, G. Vidal

(Submitted on 14 Sep 2008)

The structure of string-net lattice models, relevant as examples of topological phases, leads to a remarkably simple way of expressing their ground states as a tensor network constructed from the basic data of the underlying tensor categories. The construction highlights the importance of the fat lattice to understand these models.

**Markopoulou**and**Oriti**have been sniffing this out a long time. Note that**Wen**has heuristically linked tensor networks and AdS/CFT (strings!) in the final slide of http://dao.mit.edu/~wen/talks/09QHtop.pdf.http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.2994

**Tensor network decompositions in the presence of a global symmetry**Sukhwinder Singh, Robert N. C. Pfeifer, Guifre Vidal

(Submitted on 17 Jul 2009)

Tensor network decompositions offer an efficient description of certain many-body states of a lattice system and are the basis of a wealth of numerical simulation algorithms. We discuss how to incorporate a global symmetry, given by a compact, completely reducible group G, in tensor network decompositions and algorithms. This is achieved by considering tensors that are invariant under the action of the group G. Each symmetric tensor decomposes into two types of tensors: degeneracy tensors, containing all the degrees of freedom, and structural tensors, which only depend on the symmetry group. In numerical calculations, the use of symmetric tensors ensures the preservation of the symmetry, allows selection of a specific symmetry sector, and significantly reduces computational costs. On the other hand, the resulting tensor network can be interpreted as a superposition of exponentially many spin networks. Spin networks are used extensively in loop quantum gravity, where they represent states of quantum geometry. Our work highlights their importance also in the context of tensor network algorithms, thus setting the stage for cross-fertilization between these two areas of research.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.3773

**Area laws for the entanglement entropy - a review**Authors: J. Eisert, M. Cramer, M.B. Plenio

(Submitted on 28 Aug 2008 (v1), last revised 16 Jan 2009 (this version, v3))

Physical interactions in quantum many-body systems are typically local: Individual constituents interact mainly with their few nearest neighbors. This locality of interactions is inherited by a decay of correlation functions, but also reflected by scaling laws of a quite profound quantity: The entanglement entropy of ground states. This entropy of the reduced state of a subregion often merely grows like the boundary area of the subregion, and not like its volume, in sharp contrast with an expected extensive behavior. Such "area laws" for the entanglement entropy and related quantities have received considerable attention in recent years. They emerge in several seemingly unrelated fields, in the context of black hole physics, quantum information science, and quantum many-body physics where they have important implications on the numerical simulation of lattice models. In this Colloquium we review the current status of area laws in these fields. Center stage is taken by rigorous results on lattice models in one and higher spatial dimensions. The differences and similarities between bosonic and fermionic models are stressed, area laws are related to the velocity of information propagation, and disordered systems, non-equilibrium situations, classical correlation concepts, and topological entanglement entropies are discussed. A significant proportion of the article is devoted to the quantitative connection between the entanglement content of states and the possibility of their efficient numerical simulation. We discuss matrix-product states, higher-dimensional analogues, and states from entanglement renormalization and conclude by highlighting the implications of area laws on quantifying the effective degrees of freedom that need to be considered in simulations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.2393

**Explicit tensor network representation for the ground states of string-net models**O. Buerschaper, M. Aguado, G. Vidal

(Submitted on 14 Sep 2008)

The structure of string-net lattice models, relevant as examples of topological phases, leads to a remarkably simple way of expressing their ground states as a tensor network constructed from the basic data of the underlying tensor categories. The construction highlights the importance of the fat lattice to understand these models.

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