Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter, especially the solid and liquid phases which arise from electromagnetic forces between atoms. More generally, the subject deals with "condensed" phases of matter: systems of many constituents with strong interactions between them. More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate found in ultracold atomic systems. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by experiments to measure various material properties, and by applying the physical laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, and other theories to develop mathematical models.
The diversity of systems and phenomena available for study makes condensed matter physics the most active field of contemporary physics: one third of all American physicists self-identify as condensed matter physicists, and the Division of Condensed Matter Physics is the largest division at the American Physical Society. The field overlaps with chemistry, materials science, engineering and nanotechnology, and relates closely to atomic physics and biophysics. The theoretical physics of condensed matter shares important concepts and methods with that of particle physics and nuclear physics.A variety of topics in physics such as crystallography, metallurgy, elasticity, magnetism, etc., were treated as distinct areas until the 1940s, when they were grouped together as solid-state physics. Around the 1960s, the study of physical properties of liquids was added to this list, forming the basis for the more comprehensive specialty of condensed matter physics. The Bell Telephone Laboratories was one of the first institutes to conduct a research program in condensed matter physics. According to founding director of the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, physics professor Manuel Cardona, it was Albert Einstein who created the modern field of condensed matter physics starting with his seminal 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescence which opened the fields of photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and later his 1907 article on the specific heat of solids which introduced, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. Deputy Director of the Yale Quantum Institute A. Douglas Stone makes a similar priority case for Einstein in his work on the synthetic history of quantum mechanics.
Questions regarding Primitive Unit Cell (and what I think the answer are, correct me if I am wrong)
1. Can there be more than one Primitive Unit cells for the same crystal?
yes, Wigner Seitz cell always will exist. There can be other primitive Unit cells along with Wigner Seitz too. But...
I was wondering if anyone knows of any technical pop-sci books about condensed matter physics and/or superconductivity that are at the technical level of something like the "A Very Short Introduction" series or the Feynman lectures. That is, something that goes sufficiently into depth into the...
Hello,
I was not sure whether this should belong to this section or the condensed matter section. I am wondering if after about 15 years in research in topological condensed matter, there exist well-recognized references for beginners in the topic. Books or courses but also review articles...
Do they really teach and help anything? I am taking them for my nanoengineering undergraduate program. The textbooks are solid state physics by j r hook and concepts of modern physics by mcgraw hill and r b singh introduction to modern physics and introduction to quantum mechanics by david j...
Hi all, I just graduated from my master's program in theoretical physics. I did 60% of the coursework in high energy physics and rest in condensed matter theory plus a few experimental physics courses. I did my master's thesis in what can be called as theoretical cosmology, studying particle...
I am on my first year of my master's degree in nuclear and particle physics, and right now i am ending my first semester, where i decided to take a course in physics of semiconductors. As i end this semester i start to wonder if there was any use in learning about this subject, as it seems like...
Hi all,
(I also posted this in the high energy theory section since my impression is there is a deep interplay between modern condensed matter theory and high energy theory).
Some background: I'm interested in the interplay between condensed matter and high energy theory. I'm a bit more than...
How much of Earth atmosphere consists of condensed phases?
What is the breakdown of these condensed phases between those that condense in atmosphere (water) and those that do not (rock)?
The total amount of water in Earth atmosphere is quoted as a 25 mm layer on average - total of about 13 000...
I am trying to understand how is topology used to characterize materials. So I understand that to calculate the Berry phase you will parameterize your Hamiltonian and change this parameter in some way and return to the initial value. What I do not understand is what does this changing of...
Hi,
I don't want to be too specific here, but specific enough for relevant advice.
I'm finishing a Masters in Physics and am lucky to have been made offers by 2 excellent institutes: a Max Planck Graduate Centre (MP), and at Oxford UK. Both are in experimental condensed matter; Weyl...
This is going to be controversial and might even be taken down, but I think what I will say is absolutely true, and I'm sorry if it offends people.
I'm applying for the second time to condensed matter PhDs. I was in a group that did a lot of device fabrication as part of their experiments and...
I have my MSc in 'Computational condensed matter physics'. I used VASP package for simulation during my MSc. and i am also well experienced in FORTRAN programming language. Can anyone give me short note about 'PhD in computational physics'? so that can continue my PhD in 'Computational Physics'.
I'm working on a PhD in condensed matter computational physics, particularly with method development. My plan is to go into industry afterwards, and out of curiosity I've been looking at job listings. It doesn't look good to be honest. Listings for physicists mainly require some type of lab...
Hey guys. I have offers to do summer research at both Brown University and University of Chicago this summer, and I was wondering which school has a stronger department in regards to condensed matter theory. Personally, I think it's University of Chicago, but I'm not too sure and I'd appreciate...
In your opinion, what are the main challenges for future condensed matter physics? What type of material systems are more desirable to discover? Which quantum properties are the most interesting to demonstrate for future devices working at room temperature and ambient pressure (besides...
Well, I don't understand the integral part of ##1/(VD) = \int_0^{\hbar \omega_D}\frac{\tanh(\beta E/2}{E}dE## and ##\tanh(\beta E/2) \approx 1-2\exp(-\beta E)##, then he writes the following (which I don't understand how did he get it):
$$\frac{1}{VD} = \sinh^{-1} (\hbar \omega/\Delta(0)) =...
I am torn between computational and experimental condensed matter physics for my PhD. My focus is on low dimensional systems (e.g. electron correlation/transport, broken symmetry at the boundaries). I'm currently in the process of applying for graduate schools, and so far, I've chosen all my...
Dear all,
in the context of my teaching I was wondering what exactly the explanation is of how a mirror works at the atomic level. Apparently, the fact that reflecting materials are often also good conductors and hence big energy bands helps reflecting the photons. Does someone know a nice set...
Hello everyone, I'm a Physics student on a gap year, doing a bit of work ATM.
I'm going to come back in October this year to do a one-year Masters' at Cambridge, and I'm faced with a tough choice:
A) Specialize in Astrophysics/cosmology, which is something that I'm not as good at, but really...
I'm a physics and math major, going into my 3rd year. Suppose I want to do research in theoretical aspects of condensed matter. What would be the mathematics I should be learning as an undergraduate? Here is a rundown of courses I'm considering taking next year:
Abstract Algebra: it seems a...
Hello,
I am currently struggling to understand how one can write a Hamiltonian using group theory and change its form according to the symmetry of the system that is considered. The main issue is of course that I have no real experience in using group theory.
So to make my question a bit less...
Hi Guys, I attempted the question below and just need someone to have a look to make sure there are no mistakes.
1. Homework Statement
Write condensed structural formulas and the names for three constitutional (i.e. structural) isomers with the molecular formula C7H16.
Homework Equations...
I have read that postdocs are extremely hard to come by in Astrophysics, and is likely a dead end at the end of the PHD and that Condensed Matter is less competitive in academia. Would a Condensed Matter PhD also provide more opportunities in UK science industry - in particular the life sciences...
Hi, I'm an undergrad materials engineering student. I am thinking of studying all the way to a PhD as I'm interested on working in research. Right now I work with Semiconductors and I like the field a lot. However, considering what I'm studying, I want to know if it's a good Idea to look for a...
Quantum field theory is a powerful tool to calculate observables given the amplitude of some process.
I only know the application to high energy physics: you have a Lagrangian with an interaction term between some fields, and you can calculate the amplitude of some process. Once you have this...
I did research on theoretical formulations in general relativity during my MSc studies. I look forward to pursuing PhD and have searched many universities and some research institutes for suitable research themes, but haven't found many research groups undertaking research consistent with my...
I'm currently trying to find how much water can be condensed from an airmass of a certain dewpoint if it is sent to a lower temperature. The water will be condensed over a period of time. I have the dewpoint of the initial air and the temperature of the environment where the moist air is being...
Hi, I'm currently in my last year of undergrad and I'm wondering about which specialization I should pursue. I'm looking for career stability, I don't mind leaving academia I'd just like to employ what I study in school in my future career. So, to my questions
1) In terms of career stability...
I am wondering if there is some type of matter in the core of the Black Hole. Is it possible to compute the distance from the surface of the Black Hole Core to the Event Horizon? Oh that would be fun to calculate.
I'm currently working in condensed matter theory. Looking at other fields of physics, it seems easy to relate them to a lay audience; for example, in explaining why you study physics, a high energy physicist could go on about the 4 fundamental forces and searches for a unifying theory of...
Can anyone suggest some books which deals with electron correlations in many body systems?The book should cover second quantization,hubbard model,mott transition etc.I'm a beginner in this filed and want to learn from the very basics.
Hi.
I'll be doing a master's degree in nanophysics and working on electron transport in arrays of qubits.
I don't know anything (or barely) about the second quantization and would like a book which covers it, and on condensed matter overall.
So far I've been told about Bruus&Flensberg's...
I'm a bachelor student in Physics and I would like to continue with a MSc in the field of Condensed Matter Physics.
I have to choose between some courses at my university and, since I'm not already an expert in Condensed Matter I would like to have a suggestion. If you were in my situation and...
Homework Statement
(a) In an espresso coffee machine, steam at 100 °C is passed into milk to heat it. Calculate (i) the energy required to heat 150 g of milk from room temperature (20 °C) to 80 °C, (ii) the mass of steam condensed.
(b) A student measures the temperature of the hot coffee as it...
What extra math courses should an undergrad take (or self-study) if they want to go into Quantum Optics or Condensed Matter theory?
I've already taken calculus, linear algebra, ODEs, PDEs, and complex analysis (I will also be doing a second course on linear algebra in two months time).
Can you give the name of an excited book of solid state / condensed matter physics ( beside kittel and ashcroft ) ? a book than contains more talking about experimental rather than theory
What are prerequisite courses/topics to better understand holography as applied to strongly correlated condensed matter systems? Any references/textbooks would be appreciated. I'm doing research on this topic and would like my understanding to improve.
Thanks very much
Hello all! I am second year undergrad at a university in US. I planned to major in chemistry and took five chemistry classes (organic and inorganic) and worked at an organic chemistry lab in my first year, but didn't really like it. After searching through all areas in chemistry and physics, I...
My question is a little general, and that is how we say that a system is a critical system? for example the transverse Ising model is a critical system? I think the answer is yes, since as we change the transverse field we see that there is a phase transition between ferromagnet and paramagnet...
I have just been accepted to pursue an advanced degree (Masters) in Physics with a specialization in condensed matter.
I have some questions regarding this field (Google results are somewhat outdated).
(1) What exactly does a condensed matter physicist study? I know it is the study of...