# Converting impedence response to electrical conductivity

• Alba19
In summary, the conversation revolved around converting a curve of impedance magnitude vs frequency to electrical conductivity vs time. The experts stated that this conversion is not possible due to the reactive contribution in AC measurements and the frequency dependence of impedance being from reactance, not conductivity. They also mentioned that the units for electrical conductivity are mhos or Siemens, and suggested converting the curve to admittance vs period instead. The conversation ended with the person wanting to model a system with a black box using conductivity as the transfer function, but not providing enough information for the experts to fully understand their question.

#### Alba19

Hi,

I have a curve, impedance magnitude vs frequency. i would like to convert this curve to electrical conductivity vs time. how can i do that?

You can't.
Impedance vs frequency is an AC measurement; meaning the capacitance and inductance (i.e. the reactive contribution) also plays a role. Hence, if you only have the magnitude there is no way to figure out what the conductivity is.
Also, "conductivity vs time" does not make sense; the frequency dependence of the impedance comes from the reactance, not the conductivity.

Alba19 said:
Hi,

I have a curve, impedance magnitude vs frequency. i would like to convert this curve to electrical conductivity vs time. how can i do that?
Perhaps you mean period of the sinusoidal input?

What units do you have in mind for "electrical conductivity"?

NascentOxygen said:
What units do you have in mind for "electrical conductivity"?
S/m(unit)

Conductivity is the inverse of resistance. It is measures in mhos (reciprocal of ohms). You might also express it as current/voltage, or amps/volts.

Is that what you mean?

We are having trouble understanding your question.

Hi.
Alba19 said:
Hi,

I have a curve, impedance magnitude vs frequency. i would like to convert this curve to electrical conductivity vs time. how can i do that?
Impedence is the complex number that captures the magnitude and phase of the quotient of the complex numbers of a sinusoidal voltage over a sinusoidal current. The units of impedence are Ohms.

$$v(t) = A \cos( \omega t) \,\, V \rightarrow A \angle{0} \,\, V \\ i(t) = B \cos(\omega t + \phi) \,\, A \rightarrow B \angle{\phi} \,\, A \\ Z_{L} = \dfrac{ A \angle{0} }{ B \angle{\phi} } \,\, \Omega = \dfrac{A}{B} \angle{ - \phi } \,\, \Omega$$
The inverse of this complex number, is admittance. Admittance has the same units as conductance: Siemens $$\,\, S$$
You can convert an impedence to an admittance by taking its reciprocal:
$$\dfrac{1}{Z_{L} } = \dfrac{1 \angle{0} }{ \dfrac{A}{B} \angle{ - \phi } \,\, \Omega} = \dfrac{B}{A}\angle{ \phi } \,\, S = Y_{L}$$
The admittance is simply the quotient of the complex current over voltage.

The units of admittance are Siemens, same as conductance. You can convert the impedence response by taking the reciprocal of the impedence function. But you cannot convert an impedence to a conductance, just that its reciprocal has the same units as conductance. You can them compare the magnitudes.
For example, the impedence of a capacitor can be proven to be:
$$-j \cdot \dfrac{1}{ \omega C} \,\, \Omega$$ Where $$\dfrac{1}{ \omega C } \,\, \Omega$$ is the capacitive reactance.
The reciprocal of capacitive and inductive reactance is called capacitive susceptance $$\dfrac{1}{\dfrac{1}{ \omega C } \Omega } = \omega C \,\, S$$ and inductive susceptance respectively, they have units of Siemens.

As an example, take a series RLC circuit:
$$R + j( \omega L - \dfrac{1}{\omega C} ) \,\, (\Omega) = Z(\omega)$$
The magnitude response is:
$$| Z(\omega)| \,\, \Omega = \sqrt{ {R^2 + ( \omega L - \dfrac{1}{\omega C} )^2} } \,\, (\Omega)$$
Taking the inverse of this:
$$\boxed{|Y(\omega)| S = \dfrac{1}{| Z(\omega)| (\Omega) } = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{ {R^2 + ( \omega L - \dfrac{1}{\omega C} )^2} } \,\, (\Omega) }}$$
You can convert an impedence function of angular velocity to an admittance function of angular velocity, as stated in my earlier post. To convert it to the time domain is not possible.
The complex numbers that represent current and voltage can indeed be converted to the time domain by multiplying them with the exponential that was factored out previously:

Last edited:
rrogers
Alba19 said:
I have a curve, impedance magnitude vs frequency.
Maybe it would help if we knew where the curve data came from?
Why do you need to invert the graph of the data?

Alba19 said:
S/m(unit)
Okay. But there is no length dimension in your impedance data.

I think the best you can do is convert impedance vs frequency to admittance vs period.

Next time please post the curve and more information, it is not right to leave everyone guessing as to your intentions and with zero data provided.
The units you mentioned, Siemens per meter, is this something related to transmission lines?

Baluncore said:
Maybe it would help if we knew where the curve data came from?
Why do you need to invert the graph of the data?
I want to model a system with a black box. my transfer function is conductivity and i just have Magnitude of impedance vs frequency in different temperature and magnitude of current vs frequency.
I would like how i get to it

anorlunda said:
Conductivity is the inverse of resistance. It is measures in mhos (reciprocal of ohms). You might also express it as current/voltage, or amps/volts.

Is that what you mean?

We are having trouble understanding your question.

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Alba19 said:
I want to model a system with a black box. my transfer function is conductivity and i just have Magnitude of impedance vs frequency in different temperature and magnitude of current vs frequency.
I would like how i get to it
Is that...
Output impedance Vs input frequency?
Output current Vs input frequency?

If that's all you have then you can't work out a transfer function ...

Output conductance Vs input conductance.

It seems the two graphs are of different signals. Is one the input, the other the output?
What is the input to the black box? What is the output?
Please provide a block diagram showing inputs, outputs and which signal is swept in frequency.

Asymptotic and CWatters
What is the system?

CWatters said:
What is the system?
The output is conductivity vs time. i have some graphs of the system. 2graphs are attached above. the graphs include: Current vs time, magnitude of current vs frequency, current vs voltage, magnitude of impedance vs frequency and magnitude of current vs temperature.that's all. the graph of current vs time is dependent on temperature.

Baluncore said:
It seems the two graphs are of different signals. Is one the input, the other the output?
What is the input to the black box? What is the output?
Please provide a block diagram showing inputs, outputs and which signal is swept in frequency.
all graphs are related to a system. temperature, frequency, time are inputs of graphs

Alba19 said:
The output is conductivity vs time. i have some graphs of the system. 2graphs are attached above. the graphs include: Current vs time, magnitude of current vs frequency, current vs voltage, magnitude of impedance vs frequency and magnitude of current vs temperature.that's all. the graph of current vs time is dependent on temperature.

That makes no sense. There is no way to calculate the conductivity using that information. Even if you had a complete description (i.e. including phase information) of your "black box" as a 2-port system you would at the very least need a circuit model (as well as the geometric dimensions of you sample) to calculate a parameter such as conductance.

Asymptotic
f95toli said:
That makes no sense. There is no way to calculate the conductivity using that information. Even if you had a complete description (i.e. including phase information) of your "black box" as a 2-port system you would at the very least need a circuit model (as well as the geometric dimensions of you sample) to calculate a parameter such as conductance.
You mean i should have equivalent circuit of system? how come?

Alba19 said:
I want to model a system with a black box.
What is the input variable?
What is the output variable?

Alba19 said:
. my transfer function is conductivity
That does not make sense. You have a frequency swept input and you have an output. The transfer function is the output divided by the input. That might have the same dimensions as conductivity.

Since you have only the magnitude of the complex variables, you have lost the phase or time information. The problem may therefore be insoluble.

There is also confusion here over use of the terms “conductivity” and “conductance”.

Conductivity or “specific conductance” is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.
Conductivity is a property of a material, independent of geometry or scale.
The SI unit of conductivity is siemens/metre, (S/m), and has dimensions of kg−1⋅m−3⋅s3⋅A2

The conductance, G, of a particular element is the ratio of current through the element divided by the voltage across the element. G = I / V. The unit is siemens or mho and has dimensions of kg−1⋅m−2⋅s3⋅A2

The resistance, R, of a particular element is the ratio of voltage across the element divided by the current through the element. R = V / I. The unit is ohm and has dimensions of kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−2

G = R−1.

Alba19 said:
The output is conductivity vs time. i have some graphs of the system. 2graphs are attached above. the graphs include: Current vs time, magnitude of current vs frequency, current vs voltage, magnitude of impedance vs frequency and magnitude of current vs temperature.that's all. the graph of current vs time is dependent on temperature.
When I ask "what is the system" I meant is it a production line making something like battery electrodes? Thin film resistors? Chocolate mouse?

Baluncore said:
There is also confusion here over use of the terms “conductivity” and “conductance”.

Conductivity or “specific conductance” is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.
Conductivity is a property of a material, independent of geometry or scale.
The SI unit of conductivity is siemens/metre, (S/m), and has dimensions of kg−1⋅m−3⋅s3⋅A2

The conductance, G, of a particular element is the ratio of current through the element divided by the voltage across the element. G = I / V. The unit is siemens or mho and has dimensions of kg−1⋅m−2⋅s3⋅A2

The resistance, R, of a particular element is the ratio of voltage across the element divided by the current through the element. R = V / I. The unit is ohm and has dimensions of kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−2

G = R−1.
I mean electrical coductivity. material properties (S/m), inverse of R

Baluncore said:
What is the input variable?
What is the output variable?
?

Alba19 said:
The output is conductivity vs time. i have some graphs of the system. 2graphs are attached above. the graphs include: Current vs time, magnitude of current vs frequency, current vs voltage, magnitude of impedance vs frequency and magnitude of current vs temperature.that's all. the graph of current vs time is dependent on temperature.
If you mean conductance (not conductivity) then it might be possible in two steps...

1) If you have "current vs voltage" you can plot conductance vs current.
2) Then if you have "current vs time" you can plot conductance vs time.

Then if you have the mechanical dimensions you can possibly convert conductance to conductivity.

After 25 posts, ewe still don't understand the question. There may be language difficulties.