Electrons in vacuum vs electrons in a sphere

• Lacplesis
In summary, the atomic structure of metals and the positive forces exerted by the nuclei of atoms are what allow electrons to be held closely together in a solid object, despite their natural tendency to repel. In terms of trapping electrons for electrostatic fusion, magnetic fields are the most successful method due to the endless field lines they provide. Other techniques, such as using clever mathematical calculations or magnetic bottles, have also been explored. However, the use of magnetic fields seems to be the most promising approach at this time.
Lacplesis
I know that in a sphere or other geometric conducting objects there is no E field inside because all the charge resides on the outside of the object canceling any inside field , although if I were to focus an electron gas in a vacuum chamber in some circular shape , all the electrons would want to repel each other , I wonder what is the trick that makes those electrons hold on closely next to each other in a solid object , is it the atomic structure of metals for example where the electrons cannot escape from the material so they are held even though they would like to repel away like in the vacuum condition ?

I wonder is there any mechanism by which one could make a “virtual” sphere or some kind of structure on which those electrons could stick to without flying away.

I ask this because I was reading about electrostatic fusion approaches like the polywell and I thought the electron well in the middle is very hard to get and even maintain because all the electrons want to repel yet putting a conductor like a thin metal ball would destroy the ball due to heat and radiation , so I was thinking maybe there is another way of trapping those electrons and canceling the inner field as for them not to repel one another.

Just a thought , what can you say ?

Lacplesis said:
I wonder what is the trick that makes those electrons hold on closely next to each other in a solid object , is it the atomic structure of metals for example where the electrons cannot escape from the material so they are held even though they would like to repel away like in the vacuum condition ?

The positive nuclei of the atoms exerts a force that holds them onto the sphere.

Lacplesis said:
so I was thinking maybe there is another way of trapping those electrons and canceling the inner field as for them not to repel one another.

You have to create an electric or magnetic field to hold them in place, but electric fields cannot be used because, as you've seen, it gets canceled out on the inside. That leaves magnetic fields, which have cusps between the magnets that allow electrons to leak out of the center of the device. The polywell charges the electromagnets (or rather the frame holding the electromagnets) with a positive charge so that any electrons that leave the device are attracted back towards the center.

I don't see an other way of holding electrons in place other than magnetic fields, but perhaps some creative engineering will change things in the future.

you might read Philo Farnsworth's fusor patents. As i recall he used some clever math to describe his electric fields.

There are many ideas for holding charged particles -'magnetic bottles' etc.. The Toroidal arrangement of coils is the most successful and it's what is used for the tight containment of plasma for fusion. The geometry of magnetic fields yields a more suitable approach because you can get 'endless' field lines which can trap charged particles for a long time as they go round and round the loop. E fields have 'ends' on their field lines. (+ and -) . Look up Zeta Thermonuclear Reactor.

What is the difference between electrons in vacuum and electrons in a sphere?

Electrons in vacuum refer to free electrons that are not bound to any atom or molecule, while electrons in a sphere refer to electrons that are confined to a spherical shape, such as within an atom or a nanoparticle.

How do electrons behave differently in vacuum and in a sphere?

Electrons in vacuum have more freedom of movement and can travel at higher speeds, whereas electrons in a sphere are more restricted in their movement due to the surrounding environment. Additionally, electrons in a sphere may exhibit quantum effects such as energy levels and wave-like behavior.

Why is it important to study electrons in vacuum and in a sphere separately?

Understanding the behavior of electrons in vacuum is important for applications such as vacuum tubes and electron microscopy, while studying electrons in a spherical environment can provide insights into the properties and behavior of atoms and molecules.

How are electrons in a vacuum created?

Electrons can be created in vacuum through processes such as thermionic emission, photoelectric effect, and field emission. In these processes, a source of energy is used to knock electrons out of a material, resulting in free electrons in the vacuum.

What are the practical applications of studying electrons in a sphere?

Studying electrons in a sphere can have applications in fields such as materials science, nanotechnology, and quantum computing. By understanding the behavior of electrons in a confined environment, scientists can manipulate and control their properties for various technological advancements.

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