# Energy-Momentum Tensor for the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian

## Homework Statement

The energy-momentum tensor $T^{\mu\nu}$ of the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_{KG} = \frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}\phi^{2}$ is given by

$$T^{\mu\nu}~=~\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\eta^{\mu\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG}.$$
Show that $\partial_{\mu}T^{\mu\nu}=0$.

## The Attempt at a Solution

$$\partial_{\mu}T^{\mu\nu} \\ =\partial_{\mu}[\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\eta^{\mu\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG}]\\ =\partial_{\mu}(\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\partial^{\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG})\\ =(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\partial^{\nu}(\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}\phi^{2})\\ =(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\partial^{\nu}(\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi)+m^{2}\phi(\partial^{\nu}\phi)$$

Where do I go from here? I know I need to use the Klein-Gordon equation, but using the KG equation cancels the first and third terms and leaves the second term.

• JD_PM

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TSny
Homework Helper
Gold Member
$$\partial_{\mu}T^{\mu\nu} \\ =\partial_{\mu}[\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\eta^{\mu\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG}]\\ =\partial_{\mu}(\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\partial^{\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG})$$
The right parenthesis is misplaced in last line above.

$$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\partial^{\nu}(\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}\phi^{2})$$
Did you miss a term when writing out $\partial_{\mu}(\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi)$?

• spaghetti3451
μνμνφ + m2φ = 0

Ok. Let me start again.

$\partial_{\rho}T^{\mu\nu} = \partial_{\rho}(\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial^{\nu}\phi-\eta^{\mu\nu}\mathcal{L}_{KG})$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\eta^{\mu\nu}\partial_{\rho}\mathcal{L}_{KG}$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\eta^{\mu\nu}\partial_{\rho}(\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\sigma}\phi\partial^{\sigma}\phi-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}\phi^{2})$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\rho}\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\sigma}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

Where do I go from here?

TSny
Homework Helper
Gold Member
$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\rho}\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\sigma}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

Where do I go from here?
Are the 3rd and 4th terms related?

You want to investigate the divergence $\partial_{\mu}T^{\mu \nu}$ rather than $\partial_{\rho}T^{\mu \nu}$

• JD_PM and spaghetti3451
Are the 3rd and 4th terms related?
Yes. The third and fourth terms are identical as follows:

$(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\rho}\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\sigma}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)-\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\rho}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\rho}\phi)$

You want to investigate the divergence $\partial_{\mu}T^{\mu \nu}$ rather than $\partial_{\rho}T^{\mu \nu}$
Okay. Let me relabel $\rho$ to $\mu$. Then, I have

$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-\eta^{\mu\nu}(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+\eta^{\mu\nu}m^{2}\phi(\partial_{\mu}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial_{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\mu}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+m^{2}\phi(\partial^{\nu}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\sigma}\partial^{\nu}\phi)-(\partial_{\sigma}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\partial^{\sigma}\phi)+m^{2}\phi(\partial^{\nu}\phi)$, where the second and third terms will now cancel

$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)+m^{2}\phi(\partial^{\nu}\phi)$

$=(\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi+m^{2}\phi)(\partial^{\nu}\phi)$, where we will now use the Klein-Gordon equation

$=0$.

I think it's all correct now, isn't it?

• JD_PM
TSny
Homework Helper
Gold Member
Looks nice.

• JD_PM
Thanks!