In physics, the energy–momentum relation, or relativistic dispersion relation, is the relativistic equation relating total energy (which is also called relativistic energy) to invariant mass (which is also called rest mass) and momentum. It is the extension of mass–energy equivalence for bodies or systems with non-zero momentum. It can be written as the following equation:

This equation holds for a body or system, such as one or more particles, with total energy E, invariant mass m0, and momentum of magnitude p; the constant c is the speed of light. It assumes the special relativity case of flat spacetime. Total energy is the sum of rest energy and kinetic energy, while invariant mass is mass measured in a center-of-momentum frame.
For bodies or systems with zero momentum, it simplifies to the mass–energy equation

E
=

m

0

c

2

{\displaystyle E=m_{0}c^{2}}
, where total energy in this case is equal to rest energy (also written as E0).
The Dirac sea model, which was used to predict the existence of antimatter, is closely related to the energy–momentum relation.

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36. I Do the Energy-Momentum Transformations apply to Photons?

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