# Estimating operating temperature of wire.

• pnp1992
In summary, the discussion focuses on estimating the operating temperature of a solenoid winding in a metal casing. Factors such as voltage, ambient temperature, coil resistance, power, current, and number of turns are mentioned as key components in calculating the temperature. It is suggested to use the heat equation and consider the effect of ambient temperature, as well as the type of current being used, whether DC or AC. The importance of considering cooling provisions and seeking professional advice for a reliable design is emphasized.
pnp1992
Estimating operating temperature of solenoid winding.

Greetings everyone,

I am currently doing a design project on solenoids/electromagnets. What I need to specifically calculate is the operating temperature of the solenoid winding under operating conditions. The solenoid is within a metal casing with specified thermal properties and I have values of voltage, ambient temperature, coil resistance (at 25degrees), power, current and number of turns. Is it possible to estimate the temperature of the wire? I'm thinking that solving this requires the use of the heat equation in 1d and treating the winding as just a simple length of wire, but the fact that there is an ambient temperature also influencing the temperature of the winding confuses me greatly. Any help would be much appreciated.

Regards.

Last edited:
Welcome to PF.

The limiting coil temperature will be set by the durability of the coil insulation.
You must calculate the temperature rise above the maximum specified ambient operating temperature.

Coil resistance will most probably be proportional to absolute temperature.

I assume you are using DC current. DC and AC solenoids behave differently since the inductive component of the coil limits AC current without the heat generation.

A huge factor in this will be the cooling provision you make. If you want something you can really rely on then you really ought to look at the specifications and on what is actual practice in manufacturing. Trying just to base any design on theory alone risks catastrophic failure. There must be loads of readily available design figures for motors and transformers, to help you with this. The cost of a failure makes it worth even paying for some reliable advice. The right solution will cost you less in the end.

## 1. What factors affect the operating temperature of wire?

The operating temperature of a wire is affected by several factors, including the type of insulation material used, the ambient temperature, the amount of current flowing through the wire, and the length and thickness of the wire. Other factors such as the presence of nearby heat sources and the type of environment the wire is being used in can also play a role.

## 2. How is the operating temperature of wire estimated?

The operating temperature of wire is typically estimated using a combination of calculations and empirical data. The most common method is to use the maximum temperature rating of the wire's insulation material and factor in the ambient temperature, current, and other variables to determine the maximum safe operating temperature.

## 3. What is the danger of exceeding the operating temperature of wire?

Exceeding the operating temperature of wire can lead to a variety of issues, including insulation breakdown, increased resistance, and potential fire hazards. In extreme cases, it can even cause the wire to melt or catch fire, resulting in equipment damage or personal injury.

## 4. Are there any safety regulations or standards for estimating the operating temperature of wire?

Yes, there are various safety regulations and standards that must be followed when estimating the operating temperature of wire. For example, the National Electrical Code (NEC) sets guidelines for wiring installations and specifies maximum operating temperatures for different types of wires and environments.

## 5. How can the operating temperature of wire be managed or controlled?

To manage or control the operating temperature of wire, it is important to select the appropriate wire size and type for the specific application and to ensure proper installation and usage. Regular maintenance and monitoring of the wire's temperature can also help identify any potential issues and prevent them from escalating.

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