# Fermi's Golden Rule & Transition Probability

• plasmon
In summary, the Fermi golden rule involves transition probability of an initial state transiting to a final state in case of constant potential. As i understand the product of time of transition and the frequency of transition should be very much larger than one in order that the dirac delta function appears.
plasmon
As i studied Fermi golden rule. It involves transition probability of an initial state transiting to a final state in case of constant potential. As i understand the product of time of transition and the frequency of transition should be very much larger than one in order that the dirac delta function appears.

Does this mean that the time of particle collision(for e.g two particles come from past and collide with each other) should be infinite in order that the energy of final and initial states are same.

It means that after waiting a reasonably large time after the transition the final state has the same energy as the initial state.
Due to the perturbation term in your Hamiltonian your final state is a mixture of many energy eigenstates with energy peaked around the value of the initial state. In time, the coefficients belonging to the other states tend to zero.

So the earlier after the transition you measure the final state's energy, the more uncertainty you will have in prediciting your result.

Take a look into the derivation of transition probability in the case of the constant potential. The derivation shows that the time of the measurement is actually the time during which the interaction potential was switched on. It does not include the time after the potential was switched off.

The inequality that results in Dirac delta function is.

(Interaction Time)(Transition Frequency)>>1

Transition frequency= Difference in energy of final and initial state divided by Planck's constant.

There are two time scales involved here.

(i) Interaction time (Strength of interaction).

(ii) Transition time.

Now Since the interaction time cannot be infinite. What is the justification of applying Fermi Golden rule on elastic particle collisions in colliders, where we assume that the initial and final energy of particle is the same.

I have an idea the inequality actually means that

Interaction time>>>>Transition time (Interaction Time not is not infinite)

So in the end, only those states survives having energy same as the initial states.

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Could you provide a link to said derivation? You keep talking about a constant potential, but what you describe is in fact a time-dependend potential.

Here, is one of the many links.

Last edited by a moderator:

## 1. What is Fermi's Golden Rule?

Fermi's Golden Rule is a mathematical equation that describes the probability of a quantum system making a transition from one energy state to another. It was developed by physicist Enrico Fermi in the 1930s and is used to study atomic and molecular transitions.

## 2. How is Fermi's Golden Rule used in quantum mechanics?

Fermi's Golden Rule is used to calculate the transition probability between two quantum states. This is important in understanding the behavior of atoms and molecules, as well as in the development of new technologies such as lasers and transistors.

## 3. What is transition probability?

Transition probability is a measure of the likelihood that a quantum system will make a transition from one energy state to another. It is calculated using Fermi's Golden Rule and is dependent on factors such as the energy difference between the two states and the coupling between them.

## 4. How does Fermi's Golden Rule relate to the Uncertainty Principle?

Fermi's Golden Rule is based on the principles of quantum mechanics, which includes the Uncertainty Principle. This principle states that it is impossible to know the precise position and momentum of a particle at the same time. Fermi's Golden Rule takes this uncertainty into account when calculating the transition probability between energy states.

## 5. What are some real-world applications of Fermi's Golden Rule?

Fermi's Golden Rule has numerous applications in fields such as chemistry, physics, and engineering. It is used to study atomic and molecular transitions, as well as in the development of technologies such as lasers, transistors, and solar cells. It also plays a role in understanding and predicting the behavior of materials at the atomic level.

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