Hi guys! I have a few basic questions about the nature of light that seem pretty simple, but I'm having trouble reconciling them. A few of them have to do with the usual problem of particle/wave duality. In textbooks they frequently talk about a "point source" emitting electromagnetic radiation (in a circle, or a sphere in 3D). But when it emits it, how can you view it as photons being emitted? If the wave is a single photon, then how can a particle go in all directions at once? If it is more than one photon, then it seems like the number of them is arbitrary. White light (say, from the sun, or a candle) seems to usually be described as light with a wide distribution of wavelengths, and most of it coming out not in phase with itself. So let's just look at a single wavelength, from the distribution it's giving off. The light is created by electrons jumping back into lower energy states, millions of times a second, and giving off photons. But then it seems like for any arbitrary wave given off, there should be one nearby that was given off exactly [itex]\pi[/itex] in phase later (because of the massive amount of them). And those two waves would interfere deconstructively. So why do we still see white light? Stupid question probably, but it's been bugging me. So, fermions can't have the same set of quantum numbers. That makes sense to me in a single atom. But obviously ones in different atoms, very far away, can have the same set of quantum numbers. But the probability distribution for an electron in an atom is continuous (though I'm aware it drops off very steeply). So I know you could effectively say two atoms are apart so they can have the same quantum numbers. But then, where do you draw the line? When do electrons start being affected by the exclusion principle? Do wave descriptors like polarization and phase mean anything when viewing light as a photon? I'd love to hear anyone's ideas, or any reading you could suggest for me. Thanks! Edit: A bonus question. In all my textbooks, the model they give for an electromagnetic wave has alternating E and B fields, perpendicular and in phase. So at the nodes, E = B = 0. My question is, then, when the wave has reached a node and the fields are zero, what makes them come back up again? Also, at that moment, where is the energy associated with the wave?