# Find injective homomorphism from D_2n to S_n

## Homework Statement

Find, with justification, an injective group homomorphism from $D_{2n}$ into $S_n$.

## The Attempt at a Solution

So I'm thinking that the idea is to map $r$ and $s$ to elements in $S_n$ that obey the same relations that r and s satisfy. I can see how this might be done with a concrete example: maybe with n = 4 I could map r to (1234) and s to (24). But I don't really see how to do this in the general case.

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fresh_42
Mentor

## Homework Statement

Find, with justification, an injective group homomorphism from $D_{2n}$ into $S_n$.

## The Attempt at a Solution

So I'm thinking that the idea is to map $r$ and $s$ to elements in $S_n$ that obey the same relations that r and s satisfy. I can see how this might be done with a concrete example: maybe with n = 4 I could map r to (1234) and s to (24). But I don't really see how to do this in the general case.
The same way, I guess. I assume you defined $D_{2n} = \langle r,s\,|\,r^n=s^2=srsr=1\rangle\,.$ It would be more natural if you had it defined by geometric transformations. Wikipedia has the exact cycles.

Infrared
Gold Member
Label the vertices of a regular $n$-gon with the numbers $1,\ldots,n$. Then each element of $D_{2n}$ permutes these vertices and so defines a permutation of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$.

Edit: this is only a solution if you defined $D_{2n}$ as the group of symmetries of a regular $n$-gon. If you defined it by relations, then you can still use this to see what permutations $r$ and $s$ correspond to.

The same way, I guess. I assume you defined $D_{2n} = \langle r,s\,|\,r^n=s^2=srsr=1\rangle\,.$ It would be more natural if you had it defined by geometric transformations. Wikipedia has the exact cycles.
I'm using both the presentation and the symmetries of the n-gon to describe the group. Also, I'm not sure that's on the English Wikipedia article on the dihedral group.

But also, taking Infrared's advice, the permutation corresponding to $r$ is clear. It would be $(123...n)$. However, the permutation corresponding to $s$ is less clear. I feel like it changes based on whether the n-gon is even or odd. I think in the even case it might look something like $(2~~n)(3~~n-1)\dots (n/2~~n/2+2)$, but I'm not completely sure. This is the part that is confusing me.

fresh_42
Mentor
I'm using both the presentation and the symmetries of the n-gon to describe the group. Also, I'm not sure that's on the English Wikipedia article on the dihedral group.
Nope, but for the formula you don't need to know the language. The first has already the solution.

Infrared
Gold Member
You're right that it will depend on whether $n$ is even or odd. Take the even case. Label the vertices from $1$ to $n$ counterclockwise, and reflect about the line of symmetry passing through the edge with endpoints labeled $n$ and $1$. Where will $k$ be taken?

You're right that it will depend on whether $n$ is even or odd. Take the even case. Label the vertices from $1$ to $n$ counterclockwise, and reflect about the line of symmetry passing through the edge with endpoints labeled $n$ and $1$. Where will $k$ be taken?
First I don't see why the line through $n$ and $1$ would be a line of symmetry...

Infrared
Gold Member
I didn't say it was. I said to consider the line of symmetry passing through the edge with endpoints $n$ and $1$.

I didn't say it was. I said to consider the line of symmetry passing through the edge with endpoints $n$ and $1$.
Do you mean, if we consider a a hexagon, labeled as such, then the resulting symmetry will be (13)(46) with 2 and 5 fixed?

Infrared
Gold Member
No. If you reflect about the line of symmetry bisecting the edge with endpoints $n$ and $1$, then $1$ and $n$ are swapped. You could instead reflect about a diagonal passing through opposite vertices like you did. This would give a permutation with two fixed points. Either is fine.

Edit: I think I see the point of confusion. I didn't intend 'passing though' the edge to mean 'containing' the edge. I meant that it intersects the edge. I should have been clearer.

No. If you reflect about the line of symmetry bisecting the edge with endpoints $n$ and $1$, then $1$ and $n$ are swapped. You could instead reflect about a diagonal passing through opposite vertices like you did. This would give a permutation with two fixed points. Either is fine.
So would this symmetry in general look like $(1~~n-1)(2~~n-2)\dots (n/2-1~~n/2+1)$? And would the odd case look like $(1~~n-1)(2~~n-2)\dots ((n-1)/2-1~~(n+1)/2)$?

Infrared
Gold Member
So would this symmetry in general look like $(1~~n-1)(2~~n-2)\dots (n/2-1~~n/2+1)$? $? Almost, but you have an off-by-one error. It should be $(1~~n)(2~~n-1)\ldots (n/2~~n/2+1)$. What you wrote has $n,n/2$ as fixed points. Infrared Science Advisor Gold Member That is reflection about the line passing through the vertices $n,n/2$. This is fine, but I thought you were trying to write down the permutation corresponding to the reflection about my line of symmetry. Again, either works. That is reflection about the line passing through the vertices $n,n/2$. This is fine, but I thought you were trying to write down the permutation corresponding to the reflection about my line of symmetry. Again, either works. Okay, assuming that these are the two permutations that I want, and I start with the even case, and I let$\tau = (1~2~\dots~n)$and$\sigma =(1~~n)(2~~n-1)\ldots (n/2~~n/2+1)$, how can I show that$\sigma \tau = \tau^{-1} \sigma$? I tried by rote computation but it gets a little confusing how to write the products down. Also, it's obvious that$\tau^n = 1$and$\sigma^2 = 1$Infrared Science Advisor Gold Member Working modulo $n$, note that $\tau(k)=k+1$ and $\sigma(k)=-k+1$. This should make it clear. Working modulo $n$, note that $\tau(k)=k+1$ and $\sigma(k)=-k+1$. This should make it clear. Why is it the case that$\sigma (k) = (-k + 1) \bmod n$? How did the -k+1 come from the sigma written as a permutation? Edit: Actually, I think I can see it now. Infrared Science Advisor Gold Member Look at each transposition in the factorization of $\sigma$. The two terms always add up to $n+1$. So $\sigma(k)+k=n+1\cong 1\mod n$. Working modulo $n$, note that $\tau(k)=k+1$ and $\sigma(k)=-k+1$. This should make it clear. So now that I have found two elements in$S_n$, with$n$being even, that satisfy the same relations as$r$and$s$, how do I construct a homomorphism? If$f$is my map then I suppose we have$f(r)=\tau$and$f(s) = \sigma$, but why does this show that we have a homomorphism? Not to mention we must also show this is injective... Infrared Science Advisor Gold Member Every element in $D_{2n}$ can be written as a product $s^ir^j$ with $i\in\{0,1\}$ and $j\in\{0,\ldots,n-1\}$. There is only one possible candidate for where to send such an element if you know where $s,r$ should go. It will be a well-defined homomorphism because of the relations we verified. Every element in $D_{2n}$ can be written as a product $s^ir^j$ with $i\in\{0,1\}$ and $j\in\{0,\ldots,n-1\}$. There is only one possible candidate for where to send such an element if you know where $s,r$ should go. It will be a well-defined homomorphism because of the relations we verified. So I want to show that$f(s^ir^j) = \sigma^i \tau^j$is a homomorphism. Does the following justify it?$f(ab) = f(s^i r^j s^k r^m) = f(s^{i+k}r^{-j+m}) = \sigma^{i+k} \tau^{-j+m} = \sigma^i \sigma^j \tau^k \tau^m = f(a)f(b)$Infrared Science Advisor Gold Member You have a typo in the second to last term, but yes that's the right idea. Just say explicitly that you are using the relation we checked in your second to last equality. You have a typo in the second to last term, but yes that's the right idea. Just say explicitly that you are using the relation we checked in your second to last equality. If the relation$\sigma \tau = \tau^{-1} \sigma$is all we need for proving that$f$is a homomorphism, then why do we need the relations$\tau^n = 1$and$\sigma^2 =1## to be true?

Infrared
It won't be well-defined otherwise: if $s^ir^j=s^pr^q$ (equivalently, $i\equiv p\mod 2$ and $j\equiv q\mod n$), then we need $f(s^ir^j)=f(s^pr^q)$.
If instead you restrict the exponents to be in the intervals that I did, then this isn't an issue of checking that $f$ is well-defined (since there is only one way to put an element of $D_n$ into the desired form), but in this case we need these relations for $f$ to be a homomorphism since we would need to reduce the exponents of the outputs modulo $2,n$.