# How to calculate change in pressure of air through a funnel

• fergusonc
In summary: The pressure at the end of the pipe is the sum of the pressure at the beginning and the pressure at the venturi, so the pressure will be highest there.
fergusonc
i am looking for a formula or text containing information on how to calculate the change in pressure when air is funneled, in a closed system, where the air is being forced through the system initially with no motion then forced through a pipe that has the same diameter for a relatively long distance then is suddenly funneled down to a much smaller diameter. any help is much appreciated. i can't seem to find anything related to this topic. most formulas i have found deal only with incompressible fluids where i am interested in air which, of course, can be compressed. thanks for any help.

Welcome to PF.

I'm having trouble visualizing what you are talking about. How is the air forced to move? A fan? A diagram would help a lot.

Yes, air can be compressed, but that doesn't necessarily mean that it is compressed in yoru scenario. Unless you are dealing with compressed air (above, say, half a psi), the incompressible flow assumptions will work fine. It sort of sounds like you need Bernoulli's equation applied to a Venturi tube, but I'm not certain.

Unless the airspeed is very high (V > mach 0.2-0.3 or so, depending on the required accuracy), or there is significant pressure variation within your system, you can treat the flow as incompressible.

If you're trying to model a real world situation, note that the pipe does work against air flow by reducing it's pressure over distance. The rate of mass flow is the same everywhere in the pipe, but pressure is reduced due to friction with the pipe itself and viscosity within the air, with the pressure energy being converted into heat.

i am dealing with compressed air and it's forced out of an air tank or air compressor through the pipe toward the funnel section where the diameter is reduced. i was just wondering what the relationship would be in the pressures at each end of the funneled section.

If the velocity is not extremely high, then the pressure will remain roughly constant throughout the funnel, with the velocity increasing in inverse proportion to cross sectional area.

Yes, I phrased that poorly: it's when the velocity pressure pressurizes the air (which happens at high velocity) that the incompressible flow equations start to break down.

## What is the formula for calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel?

The formula for calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel is: ΔP = ρgh, where ΔP represents change in pressure, ρ represents air density, g represents acceleration due to gravity, and h represents the height of the funnel.

## How does the height of the funnel affect the change in pressure of air?

The height of the funnel directly affects the change in pressure of air. As the height of the funnel increases, the change in pressure also increases. This is because there is more air pressing down on the bottom of the funnel, creating a higher pressure.

## What is the role of density in calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel?

Density plays a crucial role in calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel. It is a measure of how tightly packed the air molecules are. The higher the density, the greater the change in pressure will be due to the increased number of air molecules in a given space.

## Can the change in pressure of air through a funnel be negative?

Yes, the change in pressure of air through a funnel can be negative. This happens when the pressure at the bottom of the funnel is lower than the pressure at the top. This can occur if the funnel is being used to suck air out of a space, rather than pushing air into it.

## What units should be used when calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel?

The units used for calculating change in pressure of air through a funnel should be consistent with the units used for density (kg/m3) and height (m). This will result in the change in pressure being measured in pascals (Pa).

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