Pressure Definition and 999 Threads

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.
Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre (N/m2); similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as 1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer.

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1. Chemistry What is "gauge pressure" and how does a manometer work?

First of all, where does (1) come from? What is an intuitive explanation for the meaning of ##-\rho g##? ##\partial P/\partial z## is the rate of change of pressure relative to position ##z##. Since we have a negative sign on the rhs, it seems that ##z## is being measured from bottom to top...
2. U

A Equating Gas Pressure and Projectile Stagnation Pressure

Imagine a projectile with density p, initial velocity v0 and initial stagnation pressure = 0.5p{v0}^2 being fired into the gas chamber with a final gas pressure given by Pg = nkT, for n being the final number density before (at max pressure of gas) and T the corresponding temperature of the gas...
3. I Effects on Engine Overheating and Pressure Dynamics

I tried posting this earlier, but being my first time somehow got it in mechanical and I wanted it in thermodynamics so I am reposting here. Sorry for the confusion: Automotive cooling system Not sure if this is an appropriate forum for this question or not, but I will try. Many current...
4. Why Did the Temperature Rise in a Sealed Automotive Cooling System?

Automotive cooling system Not sure if this is an appropriate forum for this question or not, but I will try. Many current automotive cooling systems have a system that is completely filled with coolant and no room for air or expansion, other than slight bulging of the hoses, etc. A pressure...
5. B Does the shape of an object affect the pressure?

Suppose the speaker has a container into which pressure is pumped, a rod passes through the container with a disk strung on it with one flat side and on the other with a pointed side, will the disk move in any direction under the influence of pressure?
6. B How the temperature of the Earth's surface affects the air pressure above it

If the surface is heated, air above it will also heat, its temperature will rise. It will cause two processes: while temperature of gas rise, its pressure will also increase, but, also, as the air molecules get more energy, they will go higher from the earh surface, concentartion of the...
7. B Trying to understand hydrostatic pressure

Imagine we have a cylinder filled with water with a closing mechanism, the height of the cylinder is quite large to create increased pressure at the very bottom. If the mechanism closes a small part at the bottom of the cylinder, will the pressure decrease or not? Thanks in advance for the answer
8. B Trying to understand hydrostatic pressure with different vessel widths

will the hydrostatic pressure be the same on the vessels shown with a different diameter of 1 meter and 1 centimeter? and will it be the same in both vessels if the first pipe has a diameter even less than 1 millimeter, 1 thousandth of a millimeter, 1 atom?
9. B If the source of the pressure distribution around a lifting airfoil is known, why is not explained in textbooks?

Philosophically, it is impossible to prove a negative, so I will turn to one of the most recognised authorities, Anderson, J. D. (2011) "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" Fifth Edition. An on-line version can be borrowed from archiv.org at Fundamentals of aerodynamics : Anderson, John D., Jr. (John...

11. Can pressure differential close lateral window?

I'm trying to think of the least creepy reason I found my small lateral bathroom window closed this morning. I live in a 2 bed/1 bath apartment on the ground level with my two dogs and no one else. I rarely have people over. My bathroom doesn't have a fan and I don't have the best memory, so I...
12. A cylinder has two sides containing gas and water separately

I think this problem is somehow weird since fluid has different pressures at different depths.
13. I Gas Pressures and the Resistance of Materials (Biodigester Generates Methane)

Hi Physics Forum Folks! What an amazing resource of knowledge, ... thanks! The question is on the attached graphic, as its much more clear with an illustration. (Please read questions on this graphics first before looking at the video below,) This video is a very quick look at the actual...
14. Measuring the water volume in a small tank with a manometer

This is what I thought was a simple task, but it's causing me headaches. I have a conical steel tank with approximately 14 liters of fluid capacity. I need to determine the volume of water in the tank when in use, and we are currently planning to measure the pressure at the bottom of the tank...
15. Negative Pressure Wave generation due to pipeline leak

please refer below attached file for further details
16. I Pressure builds on its own inside this water tank?

Hey guys, It‘s been a few years since I had my last physics class so please be kind to me. I came here to ask you about a phenomenon I recently discovered in a design of mine. The object in question is a stand with 3 arms, holding a water tank (see pic below). All openings are pretty tightly...
17. Fluid mechanics: Euler's equation derivation

For a volume fixed in space with the positive component of the z axis pointing up, I have the force of gravity pointing down. Using the following equation I have to derive the Euler's equation. ##\frac{d}{dt} (\rho \vec{u} \otimes \vec{u}) = \phi + F_v + F_s## Where ##\phi## is the flux...
18. Calculating work done by a gas

I have found the answers for T = 848.615K, P = 126137.7705 Pa and change in S = -184.27008 J/K. But my answer for work is not correct and I am not sure where I am making an error. Could someone please help me out with how to calculate work? My steps for work is : We are given: Pi = 101325 Pa Pf...
19. Is there a pressure ratio limit for choked flow through a c-d nozzle?

Could line "b" become choked if the diameter at point 3 was increased? If so, what is the limit for the diameter and angle of the divergent section of the nozzle? Is there a point at which the angle is too great, and the diverging part is no longer effective, and the flow goes back to behaving...
20. What happens if a negative pressure gradient is applied to a diffuser?

A diffuser normally decreases the velocity by increasing the area. With assumption of an incrompressible flow, according to Bernoulli, the static pressure increases. What happens if one "forces" the flow through a diffuser by applying a bigger pressure on the inlet than on the outlet?
21. Simple Static 3-Particle Model

Diagram Integrate pressure for each particle: Add normal force and weight Sum all the forces in the x and y direction to get:
22. I What are the properties of a Sound Pressure Wave going down into a Cone?

I do not remember the correct terms to look this information up on Google. I once read that as a pressure wave goes down into a closed cone every time cross sectional smaller by 1/2 the pressure wave doubles. My cone is 12" x 12" on the open end and 1"x1" on the closed end. Cone is 24" long...
23. Engineering and pressure related questions

How did you find PF?: Friend I need to move a 2000 pound weight up twenty feet into the air on top of an eight inch diameter piston (surface area of 50 square inches) how much steady pressure would i need to achieve this and overcome the friction on the piston itself. Im trying to lift a door/wall
24. B Pressure on creation of the Universe

I had a question today as a part of my studies which was 1) If space is ever expanding what is the pressure on the creating space (universe) upon creation and 2) at what rate might you assume the quantum field is also being created and is it being affected by this pressure of creation. This is...
25. I Derivation of Fluid Pressure In A Gravitational Field

Given that ##P = ρgh##, there's obviously a problem with the following derivation of fluid pressure under gravity. Can someone spot the flaw? $$W = mgh$$ $$W = ρVgh$$ $$F \cdot dh = ρVgh$$ $$F \cdot dh = ρ(Ah)gh$$ $$F \cdot dh = ρgAh^{2}$$ $$\frac{d(F \cdot dh)}{dh} = \frac{d(ρgAh^{2})}{dh}$$...
26. A Pressure on a Capsule within an Enclosure (Underwater @ 500m)

For this engineering project I am trying to understand how the pressure would be distributed (if at all) throughout the enclosure. It will be at a depth of 500 meters (4888 kPA). It is designed with a stainless steel enclosure which can withstand the external pressure at this depth. Inside is...
27. Atmospheric pressure and water pressure - Boyle's law

I am a bit confused on the marking scheme as attached above. P1V1 is a constant by Boyle's Law. If the volume increases by a factor of 3, then the pressure decreases by a factor of 3. This means that the pressure at the top is 1/3 the pressure at the bottom, right? The pressure at the top is...
28. How best to install a pressure sensor inside a pipe?

Dear memebers, I have a test setup with a pipe (25 mm dia) having certain holes with a suction fan at the end of pipe. I need to check the suction pressure generated in the holes. What type of sensors can i use to install inside the pipe (above the hole in the mainstream) which doesn't disturb...
29. A vertical U tube rotates about the vertical axis -- Find omega to cause this height offset

I thought I could use force balance as $$V\rho g=m\omega^2r$$ But that gives two different values and neither correct $$(Ab)\rho g=(Ab\rho)\omega^2 (b) \text{ on the left}$$ $$(A×3b)\rho g=(A×2b×\rho)\omega^2(2b) \text{ on the right}$$ Just in case, the answer in the book in B
30. B Pressure in fluid (liquid)

Let’s imagine a glass of water. Now, we press on the free surface of water with a spoon (just for example), will the pressure in the entire glass increase equally?
31. I Air pressure question for two different water columns

If you had pressure sensors (red) inside closed containers (black). The one on the left having more air volume than the one on the right. They are inside a bucket (green) that is filled with water. The water will rise higher in the left container. Will the pressure sensor readings be identical...
32. Effect of pressure due to change in diameter of pipe

The pump has an outlet size of 4 inch 1) In case 1, 4 inch pipe is connected at length of 20 m 2) In case 2, 2 inch pipe is connected using reducer In both cases the pump outlet conditions are same( having same flow rate at a given pressure) What happens to pressure at the end of the pipe in...
33. Engineering Quantitative Risk Assessment of a Chlorine storage tank

Storage tank leaks are caused by the failure of the pressure relief valve, tank body, or tank piping. If the pressure relief valve fails, can't it contribute to tank body and/or piping failure from overpressure? But the tank body and tank piping can fail by other mechanisms (mechanical...
34. Superheater - pressure and temperature distribution

Quoted from the O&M manual of an electrical steam superheater: "The Steam Superheater has eight thermocouples of the NiCr-Ni type, known as "K," attached to the heating element sheath. Four of these thermocouples are positioned near the steam outlet nozzle, where the highest temperature is...
35. I Why Does Differential Pressure Vary As The Square Of The Flow?

Can someone explain to me Bernoulli's principle as to why the pressure across a restriction varies as the square of the velocity? I'm looking for an understanding (conceptual) as to why this is without a gazillion math examples please. Thanks.
36. Calculate the average force on the side walls of a container

Hi All, in the following problem: the book solution I don't understand why he added the term $$\rho g h_{z} A_{y}$$ shouldn't it just be : $$F = 1/2 \rho g h_{y} A_{y}$$
37. Chemistry Where Did I Go Wrong in My Gas Law Calculation?

PV=nRT P*1L = 6 moles * 0.0821*298 (I added up all the moles and solved for pressure) P =146.79 atm 146.79 atm * V = 2 moles Ar * 0.0821* 298 (I plugged in the moles for argon and solved for volume) V= 0.333 L Answer key says the answer is 1 Liter. Where did I go wrong?
38. I Hydrostatic pressure inside an inverted tube

When we learn about atmospheric pressure in physics class, there's this classic experiment with a straw (second drawing). So i wanted to ask about the hydrostatic pressure in that particular experiment. Is the total pressure at point 1' equal to Patm + ρgh ? So is the total pressure at point 1'...
39. B Ideas regarding gravity and entropy

I've never had any physics class before so please bare with me on my lack of understanding. I've been thinking about gravity and its relation to entropy lately and was wondering if my thinking is correct. Entropy seems to be an opposing force to gravity. where gravity is creating gradients...
40. Why Does Surface Tension Allow Bubbles to Form Despite External Pressure?

The solution manual says that before water enters the hollow So here an air bubble of radius R will escape from the sphere. The excess of pressure inside the bubble is 2T/R. The excess of pressure prevents the penetration of water into the sphere. Water begins to penetrate when the excess of...
41. Low Viscosity Oil, Tanks, Pressure Relief Valves and Check Valves

Hi Whoever, I have an idea for a system which would work for my food business but it doesn't exist. The system essentially relies on hydraulics, pressure relief valves and check valves for recirculation upon reached pressure. All tanks/pipes (The entire system) will be prefilled except for 1...
42. Pressurizing feed gas with venturi

Gas flow rate: 20lpm Gas: 10% ozone Injected into water Water flow rate: 120GPM Mazzei Injector: 784
43. How does a difference in air pressure induce a force?

Another likely very basic question from me Suppose I pinch a piece of A4 paper and pull it up, at a velocity of let’s say 1 or 2m/s (i.e. order of magnitude 10^0). The paper, of course, encounters air resistance / drag as it moves through the air, but there’s also a (larger) force that is...
44. Increasing pipe size and then decreasing

Seen a lot of videos of a guy increasing and decreasing the pipe size on YouTube and changing the flow of water or the pressure. It seems an explanation of how this works would be nice. I understand a little bit about flowing pressure. Is there any other things that involved in this?
45. I Pressure delta 1.0 bar: 0.0 to 1.0 vs 1.0 to 2.0

Hi, New member here. I have no higher education, please excuse me if I'm asking an obvious question, and feel free to reply with more questions if my post is unclear! And please feel free to correct me if I'm using wrong term(s), or wrong assumptions. My question is related to pressure, and...
46. What determines the pressure inside this experimental setup?

I have two gas tanks of nitrogen and oxygen. Mixture of gases is created and used in the system of interest. Let's say I want to create an atmospheric conditions in my system, mass ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is 0.3 and total pressure of 1 bar (oxygen partial pressure 0.21 bar). Therefore, mass...
47. Air pressure changes in a vessel as the vessel volume increases

As an example, you have a 100-gallon capacity sealed pressure vessel containing 100 psi of air pressure. What is the change in air pressure as the vessel volume is increased? If the volume is doubled is the pressure reduced to 50 pounds psi. On a graph, is the reduction rate a straight line? Is...
48. Volume's effect on buoyancy: Does pressure increase?

Hey! Im currently writing a lab on how an increase in the volume of an object will result in an increase of buoyancy force acting on an object. We fully immerse different amounts of clay playing blocks into water (using a string) on top of a scale, and calculate the buoyancy force. The reasoning...
49. How does pressure balance work in the magnetosphere?

I'm not sure how to set up the pressure balance at the magnetosphere? Maybe some energy equation relating ##\frac{1}{2} \dot{M} v^2 \sim## magnetic energy density?
50. Pressure inside a sealed container

I do know how to solve this question: We find the equilibrium pressure due to air molecules inside the container (after water has stopped flowing). Then, assuming initial pressure of gas inside the container to be atmospheric pressure, we use Boyle's law to find the new volume of the gas and...