Pressure Definition and 416 Discussions

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.
Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre (N/m2); similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as 1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer.

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  1. samy4408

    Chemistry Confused by an exercise on the subject of chemical equilibrium

    Hello , i am a little confused about this exercise because we talk about gases reaction and we are asked about the concentrations P.S : i have other questions that depends on your answer . Thanks .
  2. A

    Fluid Heights in an Open U-Tube

    Pressure on side with liquid 1 = ##p_0 + \rho_1gh_1## Pressure on side with liquid 2 = ##p_0 + \rho_2gh_2## The solution sets the two pressures equal. I am confused how the two sides have the same amount of pressure, one would have more than the other.
  3. curiousPep

    Hertzian contact pressure & shear stress

    Hello, I am trying to get some intuition about the direction of the shear stress caused by the Hertz contact pressure. Once I exert some pressure downwards on a spherical object the direction of the Hertz pressure will be upwards. However, this case some shear stress to exist, but I can't see...
  4. Dario56

    I Bernoull's Equation Derivation From Work - Energy Principle

    Work - Energy principle states that work of resultant force or sum of work of all forces acting on some system equals change in kinetic energy of the system. For inviscid fluid flowing in a pipe such theorem can be used to derive Bernoulli's equation because as fluid flows it is subjected to...
  5. V

    B Air escaping out of can with hole

    In the first figure, air goes forward and the can goes backward. My question is why does the air exert the pressure gradient force on the can. Can I have a hint for why the can doesn't move when air is being sucked in in the second photo.
  6. E

    B How to determine force based on pressure

    Hello In a pharmaceutical lab,a certain pressure is applied to IV bags using the equipment shown below.We need to calculate the force acting on the bags based on the applied pressure.I know the formula is F=PxA.But i am not sure what the surface area is.Should i take the whole surface area of...
  7. S

    Diesel Injector and Water Tube Boiler Back-Pressure

    Diesel injector: How much pressure relative to the maximum combustion chamber pressure during the sharpest phase of detonation does an injector need to be able to overcome to inject its full charge? How much overlap is typical between injection and detonation? Water-tube boiler: Are the water...
  8. Istiak

    Calculate the volume change with gas temperature for this piston in a cylinder

    Solution attempt : Option : I am sure that my work is wrong. But, I must add solution attempt in PF that's why I just added that. How can I solve the problem?
  9. L

    Pressure profile of a gas flow through an orifice

    Hello, The question will probably be related to mechanical engineering / chemical engineering / aeronautics. I come from the field of optics and have no background at all on fluid dynamics. I'm trying to calculate the dependence of pressure on distance, i.e. P(x) in a gas flow problem: I...
  10. HoneyBee

    Chemistry Finding rate constant from pressure change in an experiment

    Is there any way that I can find concentrations and then find the rate constant, k? And, using them, make an Arrhenius graph to find activation energy (including the catalyst)? Any help would be much appreciated. Change in pressure was found using a Vernier Gas Pressure Sensor. The starting...
  11. Vermilion X

    Concept of Hidrostatic Pressure in Random Shaped Vessel

    Hello Everyone! this question is using Indonesian language, i have translated the question at "Homework Statement". The container is filled by water (in Indonesian, "Air" means "Water") i know the the pressure at point X, Y and Z depends on their corresponding depth. my best answer is : Pz >...
  12. Seibtsantos

    Pressure in a bomb calorimeter at the moment of combustion

    First, I calculated the number of moles of glucose. n = m / M n = 1.8 / 180 n = 0.01 moles of glucose So I checked the combustion reaction. 1 C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H20 1 + 6 -> 6 + 6 0.01 + 0.06 -> 0.06 + 0.06 I considered the number of moles at the end of the reaction. I subtracted...
  13. Johnnyallen

    Water pressure affects air pressure

    In the movie The Abyss an oil rig crew works and lives at the bottom of the ocean in a deep sea structure. There is a compartment where there is an opening in the floor allowing the crew to lower a submersible craft without going through any kind of air locks etc. We all should know from high...
  14. P

    Gas in mercury manometer, finding its normal volume

    Some notation: - the difference between the heights of mercury, which is effectively the height of the mercury in the open end of the tube is ##h_{diff}## - the volume of gas inside the sealed off end is ##V_{inside}## - the volume of gas when let outside, "normal volume", is ##V_{outside}## -...
  15. P

    Mercury barometer with a small amount of air

    $$\rho_{Hg} gh_{actual} = \rho_{Hg} gh_{measured} + \rho_{air} gh_{air}$$ Note: by "actual", I mean "theoretical", i.e. what the barometer would measure were there no air inside it. By "measured" I mean "as measured by the faulty barometer, i.e. with some air introduced". I believe this...
  16. F

    Sorry, another Bernoulli equation paradox

    Let's start with a horizontal tube with a constant diameter. I'm not sure if it's important, but let's assume it's frictionless. I will have some fluid flowing in this tube and if it's important, we can make the fluid incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, etc. To create a flow in the tube...
  17. person123

    Bernoulli Principle For Pitot Tubes

    Here is the setup: Apply Bernoulli Principle to the top (free surface) of the two pitot tubes (1 for static and 2 for dynamic with the points colored in red): $$\frac{p_1}{\rho_w g}=h+\frac{p_2}{\rho_w g}$$ The difference in air pressure would give the following:$$p_1=p_2+h\rho_{air} g$$...
  18. F

    Flow of air through an open tube with a balloon

    I hope you guys don't mind a bizarre question from a novice. I've learned just enough about fluid dynamics to be dangerous. Assume that we have a straight, rigid tube with a constant inner diameter. It's not long, let's say it's around a foot (in case that matters). We cut a chunk out of the...
  19. person123

    Parabolic Pressure Distribution in a Jet

    Assume the jet is straight but the radius of the jet varies over it's length (like a jet of water falling which narrows due to gravitational acceleration). Also ignore viscosity. A pressure gradient would be required to accelerate the fluid radially. Because during an expansion transformation...
  20. person123

    Inertial Force in Fluid Mechanics

    According to one explanation, the left hand acceleration terms of Navier Stokes equations are the called the inertial terms. If you were to balance forces on the fluid particle, they would have to be equal and opposite to the forces on the right hand side (pressure gradient, viscous, and body)...
  21. K

    Atmospheric pressure as a function of altitude

    Summary:: i) Set up a differential equation that describes how the pressure ##p## varies with the distance r from the center of the planet. Hint: You can base your reasoning on static equilibrium and Archimedes' principle. ii)Calculate how the atmospheric pressure p and the density of the...
  22. K

    Velocity, barrel length and bore volume

    Hello. How does a bullet propell inside a bore? What determine its velocity? I read that a bullet in cal .44 propelled by black powder from a 3” barrel is as powerful as a .25 ACP, however with a longer barrel, the velocity increase significant. With a 8” barrel a .44 black powder bullet is as...
  23. E

    Pressure force on curved surfaces: vertical component

    hi guys, i cant understand why they calculate F yin this way, the part of floor that is the vertical proyection has less water than the floor in the left so i tought Fy would be less, please can someone explain this concept to me?
  24. P

    Pressure inside a sphere

    So I already have a solution available to this problem and the link for the solution is: I have understood everything in the video except the part where they are equating the force dF=GM/r²*dm According to my reasoning the inner part of the sphere (the part below the dm element we have taken)...
  25. R

    B Torricelli Vacuum Experiment

    If Evangelista Torricelli truly created a vacuum, then there would be nothing in it, yet you can see through it which means light is obviously still in there (and who knows what else), right? If there was truly nothing in it, and glass is a highly viscous fluid, and fluids conform to fill empty...
  26. brotherbobby

    An exercise with Pascal's Law

    Answer : Using Pascal's law, this is my answer : ##\color{blue}{\boxed{\vec F_a = \vec F_c < \vec F_b}}##. Reasoning : Forces ##F_a## and ##F_c## are equal because the pressures required at the two cylinders for case (c) is the same as that required in (a). It doesn't matter how many of those...
  27. I

    Chemistry Question on partial pressures

    I've first calculated the partial pressures of each gas: ##N_2: 0.4\times 7.4\times 10^4=3.0\times 10^4 Nm^{-2}\\## ##O_2: 0.35\times 7.4\times 10^4=2.6\times 10^4 Nm^{-2}\\## ##CO_2: 0.25\times 7.4\times 10^4=1.9\times 10^4 Nm^{-2}\\## From here, I do not know how to continue. Could someone...
  28. I

    Question about calculating the minimum temperature in hot air balloons

    First, I tried using the Archimedes principle and calculated the weight of the surrounding air displaced when taking off. ##W = 2500\times 1.29\times 9.81 = 31637.25 N## But then, I got stuck and do not know how to proceed from here on. I don't want the full solution yet but can I get some...
  29. Adesh

    I What is a free surface?

    I’m currently studying Fluid Mechanics, during an analysis I came across this We now consider an example that combines centrifugal force and gravity: a liquid in a drum (centrifuge) rotates with constant angular velocity ##\omega## about a vertical axis. The centrifugal force per unit of...
  30. Adesh

    Three doubts in a paragraph on the equilibrium of Incompressible fluids

    These are the images from Sommerfeld’s Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol 2 chapter 2, section 6, Equilibrium of Incompressible Fluids. Image 1 Image 2 Doubt 1 : What does it mean for a force to act on a fluid volume? Force acts on a point, force may act on a surface but I’m unable to...
  31. S

    Calculate the Pressure that Shrink film exerts on a cylinder

    First off im not sure if the equation is even suitable for solving this problem. Secondly, I have no idea how to determine the tension the shrink film can provide. Furthermore, I also think the radius of the film tube has a influence on the pressure, I guess in this problem the tube is regarded...
  32. brotherbobby

    Pressure due to two liquids in a U-tube

    (a) Situation (2) is my answer (which cannot be in static equilibrium). The pressures in the lower dashed line (##P_2##) has to be the same on either side (for equilibrium). That means the pressure due to the red liquid is equal to the pressure due to the same length of air column (length)...
  33. Aletag

    Work done BY the gas in a cyclic thermodynamic process

    Since the assignment asks the work done by the gas, that should be equal to P1*(V2-V1) aka the area under the P1 line. Do I have to subtract the work done to the system or is this the solution already? If so, why do I need P2?
  34. X

    Measure flow rate with a manometer (pressure gauge)

    Hello! I have a volume of 50 liters which I pressurize with air so that I read 1 bar on the manometer. But there is a leakage in the volume so after 30 sec the manometer shows 0,5 bar. What is then the air flow ( liter / min) of the leakage?
  35. C

    Plasma in a Solenoid

    ∇p=j×B (eq. 1) K=nI BSolenoid=μnI⇒μK (eq. 2) ∇p=-2p0r/(a2) (eq. 3) Combining these three equations: j=-2p0r/(a2μK) (θ hat direction) Feel like this is too simple and might be missing a step any help would be much appreciated!
  36. EEristavi

    Water Pressure and 2 dimensional motion

    $$ H = \frac { V^2 - V_0^2 sin \Theta} {-2g} $$ $$ H = \frac {V_0^2 sin \Theta} {2g} $$ So, I need to calculate ## V_0 ## I'm thinking about pressure. $$ P = \rho g \Delta h $$ $$ \Delta h = h - L sin \Theta $$ $$ F_A = P S_A $$ $$ F_A = P S_B $$ Dead End here...
  37. H

    Need stress value of aluminium for project work

    Summary: Im not a physics student but I really need to prove that aluminium will not deform 10m underwater Hi Im doing a project of a product which will sink underwater. It will be a sealed cylindrical vessel, length 2m, width 1m, thickness 0.02m. Aluminium 6061t will be used with a yield...
  38. Adesh

    Derivation of the change of air pressure with height

    If we take a slab of air with cross-sectional area of A and height dz in our atmosphere. Now, what we do is make an argument like this :- Pressure from below must balance both the weight and Pressure from above to keep the slab at rest. ( I have added an attachment for clarification) And...
  39. yash_it_is

    Gauge pressure in Momentum conservation of fluids.

    I want to ask why is it that we use gauge pressure instead of absolute pressure in CV analysis for momentum conservation of fluids. I did read that because P(atm) would be present everywhere so it won't have a net effect on the CV but it's highly non intuitive as I can't apply force balance on...
  40. E

    I Normal Stress

    What's really the difference between pressure and normal stress? Also I know pressure acts normal to a surface from the outside Do normal stress acts from inside? I'm reading bird transport phenomena and this is confusing
  41. R

    Fluids doubt

    what does it mean that fluid cannot sustain a force that is tangential to its surface.which surface fluids's surface or container? and what does it mean it cannot withstand shearing stress.what's shearing stress and what does it mean here.and why exert force only in direction perpendicular to...
  42. KrimsonTyger

    Is it possible to calculate pressure without a barometer?

    For an experiment, I need to pump air into a rocket with varying volumes of water, and thus air. However, I want to keep the pressure the same. Given the amount of air a bicycle pump can pump, the volume of air already in the rocket, and the desired pressure, is it possible to calculate how many...
  43. P

    Estimating the damage to a material based on force or kinetic energy

    I'm programming a game in which I'd like to simulate the real world physics of an attack using primarily medieval style weapons. Think dwarf fortress, but rather than assigning damage numbers we're calculating force or kinetic energy. Getting that much is easy enough since I can find the mass of...
  44. L

    Thermodynamic Systems - Volume, Final Pressure and Final Temperature

    Mass = 0.12kg Initial temp = 500°c = 773K Initial pressure = 0.8 MPa = 800,000 Pa Final volume = 90L R = 287 Jkg^-1K^-1 1) Initial Volume V=mRT/P 0.12 x 287 x 773 / 800,000 = 26,662.12m^3 2) Final Pressure P2 = P1P2^1.2/V2^1.2 800,000 x 26,662.12^1.2 / 90 = 1,816,095,330 Pa = 1,816 MPa 3)...
  45. G

    Pressure in fluids

    I'm looking for a conceptual understanding of pressure in fluid. According to what I've gathered, in static fluid, the pressure at any point in the fluid depends on the depth within the fluid, because there is more fluid weighing down on an object the deeper into the fluid it is. However, for...
  46. J

    I Basic adiabatic expansion Question

    I have a compressed pure gas at a specific temperature and volume. (T1, V1) It suddenly (adiabatically) expands until it's at ambient pressure and a specific temperature. (P2, T2). Given: T1, V1, T2, and P2, I want to find P1 and V2. There's a great example in wikipedia which is almost...
  47. J

    Understanding the physics behind an elastic sphere

    First off, I'm not a scientist or engineer and I apologize if I don't give a clear description of my question. I'm beginning a personal project and was hoping for some knowledge and assistance. What I'm trying to achieve is to have a spherical object (it will be at least twice as wide as it is...
  48. L

    I Misting system

    I am attaching a standard 5/8" garden hose with approximately 70psi pressure to a copper pipe that is capped on the opposite end with mist nozzles mounted periodically along its length. I want the pressure at each mister to be as similar as possible. The hose attaches at the base, a solid line...
  49. W

    Gas Law - increasing temperature with constant volume held

    I've set up a simple experiment to look at the ideal gas laws. My experiment is relatively simple in that I have a metal tube which is capped on one side. I am then pressurising the tube with air to 100 psi and locking it off. My thought is that as the pressure increased, with volume held...
  50. Andrea Vironda

    Modeling Hydraulic Brake Behavior

    Summary: Relation between deformed foil and friction force Good morning everyone, i have a small leaf or steel that is bent from one side by a Pressure of many bars. in front of the leaf there's a rotating disk, separated by the leaf by a small gap. this leaf, as it deforms, wins the gaps and...