# What is Pressure: Definition and 999 Discussions

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.
Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre (N/m2); similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as 1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer.

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1. ### Pressure rate increase between two vessels

I have to cylindrical vessels using air as a medium. I want to pressurise vessel one, release the pressure into vessel to and register a .525mbar pressure in vessel 2 - within .3s. My understanding so far, dp/dt = 175000 Pa/s required P1V1/n1 = p2v2/n2 52500 * 0.088627484 * 0.0041846 =...

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3. ### B Hydrostatic pressure on top of a cone filled with water

Does the cone shape and extra water below the colum of water of 1 cm increase the pressure/vacuum effect at "B" or "A"? Is it simular to an inverted cone dependant on angle of sides of cones, when looking for pressure at the bottom of a cone or cylinder? In simple terms, how? Basic maths only...
4. ### Converting gravity into pressure inside the very center of a planet

Gravity in the very center of the planet must be zero because all other atoms are pulling evenly around the center. We have a deap gold mine in South Africa and uranium waste storage Norway. Has the force of gravity shown change at these depths. Even at the bottom of the Pacific ocean gravity...
5. ### Calculations for Hydraulic Jacks lifting a load

This cylinder is connected by a pipe to the larger diameter jack cylinder on the right where pressure p2 acts on the piston which has an area A2 and is able to lift a load equivalent to the force F2. The piston area of the hand pump cylinder is 2.0 cm2, the piston area of the jack piston is 10.0...
6. ### B Looking for help understanding scalars vs. vectors

Why are pressure and energy not considered as vectors?
7. ### Pressure in fluids and Archimedes' principle

Hello. A: If we put this piece of wood in the emty container, the volume of displaced water will not change (because Buoyant Force has not changed), so the pressure at the bottom of the water container doesn't change and it remains constant. B: If we put the metal in the emty container, the...
8. ### Maximum pressure in a rubber pipe

What maximum pressure this silicon pipe would withstand until blowing up? ID=1mm, OD=4mm, no cord or anything like that in the pipe, pure clear silicon.
9. ### I Find Best Water Nozzle Type & Pressure for Longest Distance

Hello, I am trying to throw water the furthest distance possible from a garden hose and an inline water pump. The amount of water is not important - e.g. a tiny stream is perfectly fine, so long as it reachest a really far distance. I understand wind severely messes this up, so lets not worry...
10. ### Fluid Dynamics - Using the Manometer Equation

I tried to use this equation, so I isolated the delta h because that is what im solving for and then I thought because the pressure on both ends of the reservoir is both atmospheric pressure the change in pressure is 0. This makes my entire equation 0 and thus height is 0 which is definitely not...
11. ### Unstable Static Pressure in Exhaust Duct

Hello, I have a system where two exhaust fans are running simultaneously. However, they both discharge to the same outlet. The suction pressure seems to be quite stable, but the discharge pressure fluctuates between 2" wc to 4" wc frequently. Below is a rough setup of my system. The rectangles...
12. ### Fluids: Concept about Fluid Pressure in a relation with Force and Area

I've already got the correct answer in letter (a), which is 17140.2 Pascals. My question will be focusing about the letter b of the question and here is my solution: (b) FORMULA: P = F/A F = P*A My understanding about this problem is I have to use the pressure that I got in letter (a) to...
13. ### B Pressure in a viscous liquid versus non-viscous fluids

Hc verma, concepts of Physics, vol 1 pg 258 "We define pressure of fluid at the point A as : ##P= F/\Delta S## For a homogeneous and non-viscous fluid, this quantity does not depend on orientation of ##\Delta S## and hence we talk of pressure at a point". Why did the author stress that the...

15. ### Predicting Remaining Pressure in Compressed Gas Cylinder

Well, it's been nearly 10 years since my last post, and it's been about that long since I've thought about ideal gases, so here we go :smile:. Description of Setup I have a system that uses compressed gas cylinders as a source to slowly purge an optical payload. The source is 12x compressed...
16. ### B Water surface under pressure

Hi togehter, this may be an easy one for most, but I'm really struggling with imagining the process. Suppose we have a compressed air vessel that is half filled with water. The pressure in the vessel drops from 10 bar to atmospheric pressure within a few seconds. How does the water surface...
17. ### I Calculating Pressure Change Filling Gas Cylinders

I want to work out how to calculate the pressure change in a gas cylinder if it is used to fill another cylinder to a lower pressure. For example, if a 50 litre gas cylinder initially at 200 bara is used to fill a 600 litre cylinder from atmospheric pressure to 1.5 Bara. What would the change...
18. ### Pressure at bottom of three differently shaped cylinders

For this problem, The solution is, However, I thought the answer would be (b) and (e). I choose (b) because from the formula ##P = \frac{F}{A}## then since the vessel A has more water, then the water will have a larger weight ##W_A > W_C > W_B##, therefore from##P = \frac{mg}{A}## we conclude...
19. ### Pressure Cooker Problem

**Question:** Why do these two different approaches lead to the same result in this case? Is one of them more appropriate or valid than the other? I am looking for an explanation and clarification on this matter. Thank you in advance for your insights.
20. ### Mixing two ideal gases with different V, T at constant pressure

To be honest, thermodynamics is really not my strong suit and I get confused when and how to apply formulas. My thought process is as follows: - there are two ideal gases (ideal gas law applies) - the pressure remains constant (isobaric process), so p1= p2 = p - I imagine there being two...
21. ### Pressure inside a water drop

Taking the shape of water drop to be spherical with radius R and ignoring the gravity, three forces acting on the surface of the water drop are 1) force ##F_o## in radially inwards direrction due to the outside pressure ##P_o## 2) force ## F_{in}## in radially outward direction due to the...
22. ### What is the pressure difference?

TL;DR Summary: Which gas has a higher pressure and why? School has provided answer which I disagree. Like to hear comment from others.
23. ### B gas cylinder at constant pressure being exposed to atmosphere, how?

im learning thermodynamics and currently in a lesson about thermal processes. one process has constant pressure and before diving into equations or any proof the book provides a figure of a gas cylinder. the cylinder has a movable piston/lid on one side. the book then says "...and the piston end...
24. ### B Pressure of air inside a glass

Let's consider an uncovered glass. Air particles are present in the glass. $$P_1 = P_a$$ $$P_2 =P_1 +\rho gh = P_a +\rho g h$$where ##P_A## is atmospheric pressuere and ##\rho ## is air density. Now, if I cover the glass with a plastic card, then what is ## P_1##? $$P_2 =P_1 +\rho gh$$...
25. ### Cubical Pressure Vessel - Maximum Pressure Computation

Hello everyone - this is my first post on the forum and this would be for a real world application. I have no mechanical engineering experience. We plan to build a cubical aluminium (6082 grade) pressure vessel. The total external dimensions are 540mm x 400mm x 75mm. The aluminium wall...
26. ### Hydrostatic pressure in a narrow container

I understand that pressure increases with depth regardless of the shape of the container. However, this doesn't sit well with me. Imagine a container: 8' tall x 1" wide x 1' long. The pressure at the bottom of the container is 8' x 62.4 pcf = 499.2psf. However, the weight of the water in the...
27. ### B Negative pressure in a car to power it

My father has an idea is powering vehicle using negative pressure. I'm trying to explain to him that I don't think that can work. He is saying that imagine you're in space and you try create negative pressure by keep on removing and the only thing that's preventing the collapse of the material...
28. ### Calculating pressure from a known equation of energy

My attempted solution is as follows: Obviously the heat transfer happens during transitions 1->2 and 3->1. It's also clear that P1 = P3 V1 = V2 E2 - E1 = Integral[T dQ , from state 1 to state 2] E3 - E2 = - Integral[P dV , from state 2 to state 3] E1 - E3 = Integral[T dQ , from state 3 to...
29. ### B Acoustic levitation: high or low pressure?

So the video I'm referring to is the second in this webpage. Around time stamp 3:55 mr Wolfgang, the demonstrator, says that the little balls settle down at the high-pressure areas, which are signaled by the bright bands in the Schlieren image. We understand this by noticing that the area near...
30. ### Calculating atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen

I study genotype-environment associations in alpine species. I frequently see altitude as the sole predictor of partial pressure of oxygen in the literature concerning hypoxia adaptations. However, I understand that partial pressure of oxygen is also influenced by temperature, humidity, and...
31. ### Pressure vessel wall thickness ASME BPVC VIII vs AS1210

The ASME BPVC formula is t=PR/(SE-0.6P) where P = pressure , R = inside radius, S = allowed material design stress and E = joint efficiency factor. the AS1210 formula ,(equivalent nomenclature) is t=PR/(SE-P). This makes 1210 more conservative when using the inside radius . I suspect the pure...
32. ### I Pressure Required to Circulate Liquid in a Closed System?

Example: 3/4 pvc in closed circuit with pump. Linear distance of pipe=30ft / head 8ft .... so not counting friction, what general description of force can describe what's required to make the liquid circulate?
33. ### B Atmospheric pressure, vacuum, etc.

The value of the atmospheric pressure does not seem to me to be correct 1013 HPa and can be recalculated as approx. 1kg/cm2 (is it true?), but it does not seem that such a pressure would be manifested by any resistance or any deformations, for example on a folded sheet of paper. It is possible...
34. ### I Metal drinking cup is stuck inside a pressure cooker

the steel glass is stuck diagonally inside the press cooker, getting it out by brute foce didn't work and neither are we able to rotate it. Washing it with soapy liquid didn't work either. Any ideas on how I can get the glass out?
35. ### Pressure in a gas container measured with a barometer and a U pipe

Can someone please tell me where I am wrong, here goes the question: to a container filled with gas, U shaped pipe is attached, as shown in the picture(picture below). What is a gas pressure in the container if the height of the pillar of mercury in barometer is 740 mm? The way I solved it is...
36. ### Solving an Air Pressure Question: Who Is Right?

Can someone please answer this question, so I can figure who is wrong here, me or author. Thank you. 1.question (picture below): empty epruvete turned upside down is dipped in glass filled with water to the depth H. While doing that water enters the epruvete and reaches height of h. The AIR...
37. ### Why Water Won't Flow From Faucet with 2000 Pa Pressure?

Picture below can someone please explain me why will the water come out of faucet with the pressure of 2000 Pa? I was expecting the answer to be "water will not come out thrugh the faucet because the pressure from the barrel is not strong enough to overcome the height of the pipe" since...
38. ### What does atmospheric pressure have to do with the gauge pressure?

In this video( ) it's explained what is gauge pressure. Can someone please explain to me what does atmospheric pressure acting on a tube(in video at 3:51) has to do with displacement of a tube? I understand that the atmospheric pressure acts on the tube, but in the open space that does not...
39. ### I Theoretical pressure decay of a pressurised vessel

I am looking to derive a method of plotting the theoretical pressure decay of a pressurised vessel. I would like to end up with a graph that plots internal vessel pressure against time. Is this possible? What assumptions would I need to make? The following inputs will be known. Gas: air...
40. ### Finding partial pressure at equilibrium

In the coursebook the question says: The reaction below was carried out at a pressure of 10×10⁴ Pa and at constant temperature. N2 + O2 ⇌ 2NO the partial pressures of Nitrogen and Oxygen are both 4.85×10⁴ pa  Ccalculate the partial pressure of the nitrogen(ll) oxide, NO(g) at equilibrium. In...
41. ### How much air pressure is needed to push water up a column?

Hello, I was creating a device to move water up a tube using air pressure, but I am not certain how much pressure I would need. I attempted to create it using 5 gallon buckets, however I was unable to apply the needed pressure needed to the airtight container. The image below is what I have...
42. ### Medical Question About blood pressure

Hello everyone, concerning blood pressure , we know that the pressure exerted by moving fluid has two components: a dynamic, flowing component that represents the kinetic energy of the system, and a lateral component that represents the hydrostatic pressure (potential energy) exerted on the...
43. ### Calculating pressure of air pocket in a pressurized water column

Looking for some guidance in calculating pressure of air pocket in pressurized water column. Example: 2" vertical pipe, capped, with 2" of air and 40 psi water applied.
44. ### I In a closed loop system with a pump, how can we control the pressure?

How can we control the pressure of the water inside a closed loop system (chiller system for example)? Let´s say, we have a pump curve and an system resistance curve that can be modified (through opening or closing some valves) In everywhere, what I see is that the intersection of the system...
45. ### Calculating Output Pressure for 15L N2/min

Hello, i’m not good in physics so I came here for help. I have a high pressured gas tank (200 bars) and a flow rate regulator. I need to release 15L of nitrogen per minute, but my regulator only measures output pressure between 0 and 400 bars (0 - 6000 psi). How do I measure the output pressure...
46. ### Q：Hydrostatic Pressure vs. Energy Conservation Equation

Please help me to understand which ans is correct. To determine the ##P2##. $$h_{LM}\ne 0$$ Method 1： $$dP=\frac{\partial P}{\partial x}dx+\frac{\partial P}{\partial y}dy+\frac{\partial P}{\partial z}dz$$ \phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\rho \overset\rightharpoonup{a}=-\triangledown p+\rho...
47. ### B Investigating the Impact of Chips on Packaging Pressure Differential

Hello, I hope this is the right area to post this question. We are having a debate at my workplace and was hoping there was someone more qualified to settle the debate. We are a packaging company and have setup an experiment to test the pressure differnential from sealiong at 1800m vs. Sea...
48. ### B Digging Mars for Air Pressure

Digging 8km under the lowest point on Mars will get us Mount Everest conditions for air pressure. I was thinking of two ways of doing said title: Nuclear powered bulldozers working around the clock to clear away dirt on a low point on Mars such as...
49. ### Need help with understanding this solution (fluid pressure problem)

So here’s the question (I am only talking about the pressure at point B, the other 2 I can understand.) And here is the solution Here is what I am not understanding, why is the pressure due to the water negative and the oil positive, and why are all measurements only made from where the...
50. ### Does water electrolysis work efficiently under high pressure?

One of the stages in hydrogen production after electrolysis is to run the hydrogen through a compressor and that can take a lot of energy. Would it be possible to run an electrolysis setup inside an already high pressure hydrogen tank so that the hydrogen being separated during the electrolysis...