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jackparker5

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In summary: Assuming you have an accurate temperature sensor, you can calculate the temperature needed to evaporate a specific amount by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

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jackparker5

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Is the vessel sealed so that gases can't escape?

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jackparker5

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Yes that would be the caseChestermiller said:Is the vessel sealed so that gases can't escape?

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Nugatory

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Under those conditions the ideal gas law ##PV=nRT## will give you your answer.

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jackparker5

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I got 114.7 bars by putting in all the values, but how do I know the pressure after a given amount of time? For example, it will not be the same at 5 minutes as it was at 2 minutes? When was it 114.7 bars, is that when it completely evaporates?Nugatory said:Under those conditions the ideal gas law ##PV=nRT## will give you your answer.

By the way ,114.7 bars sounds like a lot

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Nugatory

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Once all the water boils into steam, the pressure will stabilize at whatever level the ideal gas law gives you (aside from small corrections because steam isn't quite an ideal gas, but that's a rounding error here).jackparker5 said:I got 114.7 bars by putting in all the values, but how do I know the pressure after a given amount of time? For example, it will not be the same at 5 minutes as it was at 2 minutes?

However, you can't calculate how quickly the pressure ramps up to that level unless you also specify the rate at which heat is entering the pressure vessel - it whether it heats up to 100 degrees in a year, a day, or a minute makes a big difference in when any given pressure is reached.

If you do have that rate, you'll be able to calculate the pressure reasonably well from the initial temperature of the water and the pressure vessel, the specific heat of water, and the heat of vaporization of water. Depending on how accurate you need your results to be and how interested you are in the time before the water starts boiling, you will also need to consider the contribution to the the pressure from the air already in the vessel; this contributes to the value of ##n## in the gas law.

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- Fraction of liquid
- Vapor pressure of water
- The partial pressure of the air
- The total pressure
- The internal energy of the vessel contents

If you try to extend this to temperatures much higher than 100 C, you will need to consider non-ideal behavior of the air-vapor mixture.

I would start out even simpler than this by assuming there is no air in the vessel. Why? If you can't solve the problem with no air present, you certainly won't be able to solve for the case with air present. And it will give you a better mechanistic picture of what is happening. And you can solve this simply using the Steam Tables.

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jackparker5

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Nugatory said:However, you can't calculate how quickly the pressure ramps up to that level unless you also specify the rate at which heat is entering the pressure vessel - it whether it heats up to 100 degrees in a year, a day, or a minute makes a big difference in when any given pressure is reached.

Chestermiller said:If you try to extend this to temperatures much higher than 100 C, you will need to consider non-ideal behavior of the air-vapor mixture.

It would be a constant 100 C from beginning to end. By the way, does 114 bars sound reasonable for the example I gave?

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No way. Only a tiny fraction of the 200 ml of water would evaporate at 100 C. Maybe about 10 ml. Then, the water vapor in the head space would be in equilibrium with the liquid water. The pressure would be no more than 3 bars.jackparker5 said:It would be a constant 100 C from beginning to end. By the way, does 114 bars sound reasonable for the example I gave?

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jackparker5

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How do you figure out the temperature needed to evaporate a specific amount?Chestermiller said:No way. Only a tiny fraction of the 200 ml of water would evaporate at 100 C. Maybe about 10 ml. Then, the water vapor in the head space would be in equilibrium with the liquid water. The pressure would be no more than 3 bars.

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Assume different temperatures. Calculate the amount evaporated. Plot a graph.jackparker5 said:How do you figure out the temperature needed to evaporate a specific amount?

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Nugatory

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The temperature inside a cooker is directly proportional to the pressure. As the temperature increases, so does the pressure. This is because the heat causes the air molecules inside the cooker to move faster and collide with each other, leading to an increase in pressure.

The formula for calculating pressure increase in a cooker is P = nRT/V, where P is the pressure, n is the number of moles of gas, R is the gas constant, T is the temperature in Kelvin, and V is the volume of the cooker.

The number of moles of gas in a cooker can be calculated using the ideal gas law, which states that n = PV/RT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

The pressure increase in a cooker can be affected by the temperature, volume, and number of moles of gas inside the cooker. Additionally, the type of gas being used and any external forces, such as stirring or shaking, can also impact the pressure increase.

To safely release pressure from a cooker, you can turn off the heat source and allow the cooker to cool down naturally. Alternatively, you can use the pressure release valve on the cooker to slowly release the pressure. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for your specific cooker to prevent any accidents.

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