# In a basic series-wound generator, what is "load voltage"

• Ocata
In summary: However, when the load increases, the generator output increases, and when the load decreases, the generator output decreases.In summary, the statement is discussing the poor voltage regulation capabilities of series-wound generators due to their construction. As the load current increases, the current through the field coils also increases, which induces a greater emf and results in an increase in the generator's output voltage. Similarly, when the load decreases, the output voltage also decreases. However, this differs from a DC battery circuit where the current decreases as the load increases. This is due to the difference in the causes of the increased output voltage - in the battery circuit, it is due to the ratio change in voltage drops, while in the generator it is due to the
Ocata

Because of the way that series-wound generators are constructed, they possesses poor voltage regulation capabilities. For example, as the load voltage increases, the current through the field coils also increases. This induces a greater emf that, in turn, increases the generator's output voltage. Therefore, when the load increased, voltage increases; likewise, when the load decreases, voltage decreases.

Questions:

What is meant by load voltage and output voltage? Is load voltage simply the voltage drop in the circuit?

Is it saying if you at resistance, like an additional light bulb, to the circuit. The total voltage drop across all the resistance (light bulbs) in the circuit will increase?

As I understand a Dc circuit with a battery, increasing resistance in the circuit does not change the voltage drop nor the battery's output voltage according to ohms law. And current decreases linearly as resistance increases.

Then, in a generator, how does the current increase when resistance (light bulbs) in the circuit increase? Or how does the magnetic field in the field coil increase when light bulbs are added?

One possibility I am guessing is that increasing the resistance in the circuit, actually lowers the circuit's current as well (just as in a Dc circuit with a battery as the source voltage). However, when the current is reduced in the field windings, it changes the inductive reactance in the field winding coils in some way that actually allows for a stronger magnetic field, which increases the amplitude of the output voltage and also forces the generator rotor to spin at a faster rate, thus producing a higher frequency, thus more voltage output.

Are the events I just described anything similar to what the statement in the provided text is saying?

Any and all feedback would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you. P.S. If the concepts could be described in non calculus terms, I would be ever more appreciative. Much thanks.

In the next paragraph, it states that output voltage is the difference between voltage drop and induced voltage.

... however, still not sure where in the single wound series generator system the induced and output voltage are occurring. And how increased resistance induces increased end in the field coils. And what comes first after increasing resistance? Is it increased current which causes increased emf or is it increased emf, which causes increased current?

Confused as to how increased resistance causes increased voltage drop..

Any non-perfect voltage source will have an internal resistance. Start with the most basic which would be a dry cell. Measure it's voltage with no load, then again with a load. These measurements will not be the same. The lost voltage is across the internal resistance. From your two voltage readings and the resistance of a known load you can calculate this internal resistance. This principle applies to the generator ad well. After all, the windings are not superconductors so they have some resistance. This should make things a bit clearer for you.

Ocata
Agreed,

As you increase the resistance in the circuit, internal resistance stays the same, so you measure a greater voltage across the battery, because the ratio of voltage drops increases in the direction of external resistance.

However, with a DC series wound generator, it says "as the load voltage increases, the current through the field coils also increases. This induces a greater EMF output voltage, that, in turn, increase the generator's output voltage."

Therefore, while the increased load increases output voltage, the causes seem different. For a DC battery series circuit, it's the measure across the battery due to the ratio change in voltage drops. For the DC generator, the increased output is said to be due to the increased emf, which is due to the increased current.

In the DC battery circuit, the current decreases as load increases. In the DC generator, the current is increasing, according to the text.

What is causing the current to increase instead of decrease?

Ocata said:
Agreed,

As you increase the resistance in the circuit, internal resistance stays the same, so you measure a greater voltage across the battery, because the ratio of voltage drops increases in the direction of external resistance.
Correct.
However, with a DC series wound generator, it says "as the load voltage increases, the current through the field coils also increases. This induces a greater EMF output voltage, that, in turn, increase the generator's output voltage."
Sounds reasonable. However, there are more qualified people on this forum to answer this so I will not comment any farther.
Therefore, while the increased load increases output voltage, the causes seem different. For a DC battery series circuit, it's the measure across the battery due to the ratio change in voltage drops. For the DC generator, the increased output is said to be due to the increased emf, which is due to the increased current.

In the DC battery circuit, the current decreases as load increases. In the DC generator, the current is increasing, according to the text.

What is causing the current to increase instead of decrease?
In the battery circuit the current most certainly will increase as the load increases. By that I mean the load current increases not the load resistance. Generally when we refer to increasing the load we think of it this way.

Ocata
Ocata said:
Because of the way that series-wound generators are constructed, they possesses poor voltage regulation capabilities. For example, as the load voltage increases, the current through the field coils also increases. This induces a greater emf that, in turn, increases the generator's output voltage. Therefore, when the load increased, voltage increases; likewise, when the load decreases, voltage decreases.

Something isn't right about that statement.
For example, as the load voltage increases, the current through the field coils also increases.
That describes a shunt field motor not a series field one. Series field is oblivious to terminal voltage.

Change it to this
For example, as the load current increases, the current through the field coils also increases.
and it describes a series field motor.

Ocata said:
Is it saying if you at resistance, like an additional light bulb, to the circuit.
Did you add that light bulb in series or in parallel with the other light bulbs that make up the load?
and you seem to criss-cross those thoughts later in your questions.

Go back to the beginning,
draw a wiring diagram
and convince yourself that "increasing load" is an ambiguous term,
you should complete the thought by saying instead
or

Then you're ready to tackle the series field DC machine one thought-step at a time.

By improving our words we reason better.

old jim

Ocata, NTL2009 and sophiecentaur
Ocata said:
What is meant by load voltage and output voltage? Is load voltage simply the voltage drop in the circuit?

"Load" is whatever is connected to the machine's output terminals.
"Load Voltage" would be the voltage across the load, which is connected to the output terminals.
So, unless author has described something very unconventional, "Load Voltage" and "Output Voltage" are just the same exact voltage called by different names.

Averagesupernova hit the nail on the head with this one.
Averagesupernova said:
In the battery circuit the current most certainly will increase as the load increases. By that I mean the load current increases not the load resistance. Generally when we refer to increasing the load we think of it this way.
"Increasing the load" means causing it to draw more current and power , usually you'd accomplish that by decreasing its resistance.
"Increasing the load resistance" will cause it to draw less current and power.

i think that's your source of confusion.
Straighten that out before tackling what happens inside the generator.
.

Ocata and sophiecentaur

## What is a basic series-wound generator?

A basic series-wound generator is a type of electrical generator that produces electricity by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. It consists of a rotor, a stator, and a load, and it operates by utilizing the principles of electromagnetic induction.

## What is load voltage in a basic series-wound generator?

Load voltage refers to the electrical output produced by a basic series-wound generator when a load is connected to it. This voltage is determined by the speed at which the generator is turning and the strength of the magnetic field produced by the rotor.

The load voltage in a basic series-wound generator is directly affected by changes in the load. As the load increases, the load voltage decreases, and vice versa. This is because the load creates a resistance to the flow of electricity, which affects the amount of current that can be produced.

## What happens to load voltage if the generator's speed is increased?

If the speed of the basic series-wound generator is increased, the load voltage will also increase. This is because a higher speed causes the rotor to produce a stronger magnetic field, resulting in a higher voltage output.

## What is the relationship between load voltage and the strength of the magnetic field in the rotor?

The strength of the magnetic field in the rotor of a basic series-wound generator directly affects the load voltage. A stronger magnetic field will result in a higher load voltage output, while a weaker field will result in a lower load voltage output.

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