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Polytron II

  1. May 1, 2003 #1
    In this thread I offer to prolong discussion of polytronic model and to get acquainted with the construction of helium atom. In topic ‘Polytron I’ the construction of hydrogen atom was circumscribed, but, unfortunately, I had no time to show all links between physical constants.
    I shall remind, that according to polytronic model, emitters of electromagnetic energy in atoms are the vibrant energy rings - polytrons, i.e. multi-frequency emitters. Energy in rings circulates with speed of light, therefore frequency of vibration and energy of polytrons can accept only discrete values. The number of discrete frequencies of polytron or series is characterized by its frequency order, which, in existing concepts, can be represented as a number of main quantum numbers.
    The second quantum parameter of polytrons is amplitude order, which presents itself relative amplitude of fluctuation in rings.
    In fig.1 are shown model of hydrogen atom at the frequency order m=4 and two models of molecules at the frequency order m=6. The atom of hydrogen consists of two axial polytrons and two radial polytrons. By red and blue colour are shown radial and axial polytrons accordingly. The segments of rings are named quantrons. The grey arrows point a direction of energy (ergoline) in rings. Green arrows - direction of a helicity of energy.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/ath_2m.gif [Broken]

    In the attached file you can read about intercoupling of fine structure constant and Planck’s constant.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/NATURE_of_TWO_PHYSICAL_CONSTANTS.doc [Broken]
    Last edited by a moderator: May 1, 2017
  2. jcsd
  3. May 3, 2003 #2
    According to the generally accepted theory of a structure of substance the atom of helium consists of six particles: 2 neutrons + 2 protons + 2 electrons. The molecule of a deuterium has the same set of particles.
    Why in a nature there is no simple way of transformation of deuterium molecule into helium atom and vice versa? The reaction of syntheses of helium atoms from protons can happen at temperature some tens millions degrees and at huge pressure.
    Let's construct the script of this process from the point of view of polytronic model.
    In a fig. 2 four atoms of hydrogen in an initial instant are shown, when under operation of temperature and pressure the atoms have been able to connect by four nodes, and have derivate a figure from sixteen polytrons as a cross.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/he8_0.gif[/URL] [Broken] [/PLAIN] [Broken]

    After connection of atoms the process of exchange of energy between polytrons and change of a space position of polytrons begins. As a result of this process ‘cross’ turns into a parallelogram, which consists of six truncated pyramids. Herewith, four axial and four radial polytrons will be transformed into four doubled polytrons, which fulfill a role of links between truncated pyramids.
    In fig. 3 and 4 two modifications of helium atom are shown.
    In fig.3, upper and lower pyramids are formed by axial polytrons, and the role of links between pyramids is fulfilled with four radial polytrons.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/he8_rad.gif[/URL] [Broken] [/PLAIN] [Broken]

    In fig.4, upper and lower pyramids are formed by radial polytrons, and the role of links between pyramids is fulfilled with four axial polytrons.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/he8_aks.gif[/URL] [Broken] [/PLAIN] [Broken]

    All five constructed models (model of hydrogen atom, two models of hydrogen molecule and two models of helium atom) correspond to actual sizes of these atoms and molecules.
    The calculated spectrums correspond to observable spectrums.
    Take your attention, that it is possible to construct of polytrons much more polyhedrons, than from spherical particles. Moreover the law of quantization of energy will be kept flawlessly.
    Problem on exchange of energy between polytrons further will be surveyed.
    Last edited by a moderator: May 1, 2017
  4. May 4, 2003 #3
    For tearing off the first electron from helium atom it is needed energy 24.5874 electron-volt (eV), for tearing off the second electron - 54.4178 eV is necessary. In polytronic model, energy levels of atomic ionization correspond to the frequency order m=2. In fig.5 the layout of energy levels in helium atom is shown depending on the frequency order. The dark blue small squares show energy levels of the first electron. With red small circles the energy levels of the second electron are shown.
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/plot_1.gif [Broken]
    Fig.5 Energy levels of helium atom

    Actually, at arguing polytronic model of atom to speak about energy levels of electrons it is impossible. According to polytronic model, inside of atoms there are no particles to similar electrons in vacuum. Atoms are capable to generate (to give birth) electrons from absorbed energy, but to store electrons atoms are not capable. Therefore we shall speak about two types of polytrons in helium atom. The first type of polytrons PT1 is capable to generate an electron, when it absorbs energy not less than 24.5874 eV. The amplitude order of this polytron is equal n1=0.043333063. The second type of polytrons PT2 is capable to generate an electron, when it absorbs energy not less than 54.4178 eV. The amplitude order of the second polytron is equal n2=0.05285491. The energy spectrum of the second polytron in helium atom is similar to the energy spectrum of hydrogen atom and is evaluated under the same formula.
    The formula for calculation of energy levels of first polytron is more complex. This formula should take into account exchange of energy between the first and second polytrons. It can be well shown with the help of the graphs in fig. 5.
    According to experimental data, at transition from the level m=2 to the level m=4 the single-ionized atom of helium radiates photon with wavelength 58.4334 nanometers (nm). This photon has energy 21.218 eV. The difference of energy levels of the first polytron at transition from m=2 to m=4 is equal 18.44 eV. The photon with such energy has wavelength 67.23735 nm. Therefore, at the act of radiation, the first polytron should gain padding energy from the second polytron. This padding energy can be taken into account in the formula, as the energy spectrum of some virtual polytron with ionization energy equaled to 10.98 eV and amplitude order nv=0.03542337. On the graphs of fig.5, this energy is in the second polytron between red dashed lines 24.587-13.606=10.98 eV.
    I have shown the elementary scheme for calculation of energy levels of atoms. The atom of helium consists of twelve polytrons, therefore exchange of energy between them happens in more complicated manner. The research and system analysis of atomic spectrums with the help of polytronic model allows unclosing new legitimacies in structure of substance.
    Last edited by a moderator: May 1, 2017
  5. May 19, 2003 #4
    The other reaction, as a result of which the helium will be generated, is named a carbon-nitrogen cycle.
    At this reaction one atom of carbon and four protons participate. At passing the reaction, intermediate "phases" of one isotope of carbon, three isotopes of nitrogen and one isotope of oxygen will be generated. Herewith two positrons, two a neutrino and three gamma-quantum are radiated. As yield of the reaction, atom of helium and the same atom of carbon are gained.
    It is possible to assume, that the atom of carbon fulfils the function of a converter of particles and energy.
    In this connection there is necessity of learning of a construction of carbon atom. In particular - geometry of the atom.
    In the added file it is shown crystalline structure of graphite. The atom of carbon is fulfilled as a polyhedron, which sides are formed by eight hexagons, four rhombs and two quadrates. Such construction of carbon atom allows to differentiate space into cubes, hexagonal prisms and polyhedrons of 12 rhombs.
    I would like to tell, that the geometrical simulation of atoms helps to research structure and properties of space, about which we debate so much.

    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/carbon.doc [Broken]
    Last edited by a moderator: May 1, 2017
  6. Aug 30, 2003 #5
    “Geometry of crystals gives for us strong reason to suppose, that atoms have polyhedron’s form also”.
    By these words I had started the thread, which I tried to discuss in Science Forums/Organic Chemistry. I, certainly, didn’t gratified itself by hope to meet in this forum of the people of such caliber as L. Pauling, but expected for the practical help from organic chemists.
    For me the opinion was originated, that our chemists devotedly believe in model of electronic clouds, orbits and orbitals, therefore other models of atoms at all are not acceptable to them.
    However, I have fulfilled a small part of work and without their help and now I want to offer to your attention some outcomes of simulation of atoms of carbon with the help of elementary organic molecules.

    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/FORM of CARBON ATOM.pdf [Broken]
    http://www.sinor.ru/~polytron/FORM of ELEMENTARY ORGANIC MOLECULES.pdf [Broken]
    Last edited by a moderator: May 1, 2017
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