Porcine deltacoronavirus identified in Haitian children

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In summary, scientists have identified three children in Haiti who have been infected with a porcine coronavirus, indicating that this virus is potentially capable of spreading to humans.
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The three PDCoV sequences identified in the Haitian children were the result of at least two separate zoonotic transmissions from related non-recombinant porcine strains that probably occurred within a similar time frame.

Independent infections of porcine deltacoronavirus among Haitian children​


In each case, the emergence of Coronavirus in our species has been associated with zoonotic transmissions from animal reservoirs underscoring how prone such pathogens are to spill over and adapt to new species. Among the four recognized genera of the family Coronaviridae, human infections reported so far have been limited to alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Here we identify porcine deltacoronavirus strains in plasma samples of three Haitian children with acute undifferentiated febrile illness.
Could PDCoV merge or otherwise interact with SARS-Cov-2 in the same population, potentially through co-infection?

In the conclusion section, a rather significant comment "To our knowledge, this is the first report of PDCoV infection in humans, consistent with viraemia and systemic dissemination. The recent divergence of human strains detected in Haiti from their closest pig strains detected in China and the USA in the phylogeny highlights how little we know about the spreading of PDCoV and its introduction in Haiti."
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Astronuc said:
Could PDCoV merge or otherwise interact with SARS-Cov-2 in the same population, potentially through co-infection?
Pretty unlikely given that it is a Delta CoV and SARS-CoV-2 is a Beta CoV. Different genus, those two.
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Scientists have also identified dog coronaviruses associated with pneumonia in children. The first report came in May of this year, where scientists identified 8 children with evidence of infection by the novel coronavirus. Another case was identified this October in Haiti, with the virus showing 99% similarity to the virus sequenced in Malaysia. The canine Coronavirus is an alphacoronavirus and two alphacoronaviruses are known to be endemic in human populations (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63). Zoonotic transmission of coronaviruses to people is definitely something that occurs fairly commonly and frequently.

Here are the two scientific publications describing the cases:
Novel Canine Coronavirus Isolated from a Hospitalized Patient With Pneumonia in East Malaysia

Isolation of a Novel Recombinant Canine Coronavirus from a Visitor to Haiti: Further Evidence of Transmission of Coronaviruses of Zoonotic Origin to Humans

Here's a summary from NPR: New coronavirus, likely from dogs, infects people in Malaysia and Haiti

Here are some other articles from scientific journals discussing the potential for porcine coronaviruses to infect humans:

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome Coronavirus replication in primary human cells reveals potential susceptibility to infection

Viruses from poultry and livestock pose continuous threats to human beings

Down on the farm: Farm coronaviruses are a large reservoir for new spillover events into humans
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Related to Porcine deltacoronavirus identified in Haitian children

1. What is Porcine deltacoronavirus?

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a type of coronavirus that primarily affects pigs. It was first identified in Hong Kong in 2012 and has since been reported in various countries, including the United States, Canada, and China.

2. How was Porcine deltacoronavirus identified in Haitian children?

In a study published in 2019, researchers from the University of Florida identified PDCoV in stool samples from 8 out of 100 Haitian children with acute gastroenteritis. The virus was detected using a molecular method called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

3. Is Porcine deltacoronavirus contagious between humans?

Currently, there is no evidence that PDCoV can be transmitted from pigs to humans or between humans. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential of this virus to cause human infections.

4. What are the symptoms of Porcine deltacoronavirus infection in humans?

The symptoms of PDCoV infection in humans are similar to those of other viral gastroenteritis, including diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. However, more research is needed to better understand the clinical presentation of this virus in humans.

5. How can Porcine deltacoronavirus infection be prevented?

As PDCoV is primarily a pig virus, the best way to prevent human infections is to practice good hygiene when handling pigs or their products. This includes washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after contact with pigs, avoiding contact with sick pigs, and cooking pork products thoroughly before consumption.

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