1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I am trying to find the matrix M that projects a vector b into the left nullspace of A, aka the nullspace of A transpose. 2. Relevant equations A = matrix A ^ T = A transpose A ^ -1 = inverse of A e = b - A x (hat) e = b-p I know that the matrix P that projects the vector b into the collumn space of A is P = A(A ^T*A)^-1 A^T. Col space is orthogonal to the left nullspace 3. The attempt at a solution Since Col space is orth to left null, I was thinking of just find a matrix that, when doted with P is equal to zero (the definition of orthogonality); but thats what they want us to do in part b Also, since we can get the left nullspace from the column space, i was thinking we could just apply that to P in order to get M (as in find the left null space of P) but the problem is that A is not given Third idea; the error e used in finding P is in the left nullspace. so if i could somehow make it only have a component in the left nullspace, none in the column space, i could somehow find P. So i have plenty of ideas, but no idea how to implement them. any help would be GREATLY appreciated, as this pset is due in 3 hours!