With the advances of science, will it be possible to turn red cells into sperm or turn them into eggs to help a man who has lost both testicles or a woman who has lost her ovaries?
Red bloods cells (in humans) have no nucleus or DNA.
You would have to try a different kind of cell that still has it DNA in order to have a chance of doing this.
If you want something to dwell on, to perhaps guide your search of cell types, here's this. Cell types arise from differentiation of DNA expression, i.e., naked DNA acquires epigene markers that irreversibly direct the expression of DNA along different paths required by different cells. As cells develop, they spin off RNA according to which active genes are expressed, but only germline transmission of expression/transfer vector DNA, not RNA occurs.ª
Hence, the DNA which is most pliable to expression, i.e. unmarked naked DNA is the best indicator for the presence in gametes. Here's your thought: find the cell type with the least RNA or RNA specific to the type in gametes and focus on creating your sperm or eggs. A cautionary note, however, I don't believe it is ethical to alter naked DNA before creating gametes, so a "clean" naked DNA is requisite.
It may be possible someday to rectify those conditions, and numerous others that were previously irremediable.With the advances of science, will it be possible to turn red cells into sperm or turn them into eggs to help a man who has lost both testicles or a woman who has lost her ovaries?
Epigenetic marks (pulling a definition) are features not directly governed by the genetic code, which include methylation of DNA and covalent modification of histone proteins. The latter may also be tagged with methyl, acetyl, ubiquitin, phosphate, poly(ADP)ribose and other biochemical groups. These groups and their particular pattern of protein modification (e.g. mono-, bi-, tri-methylated at different amino acids and combinations of amino acids) modify the function of the tagged proteins and influence the way genes are expressed. https://www.epigenesys.eu/en/learn/glossary/epigenetic-marks
Years ago there were a number of cross-disciplinary meetings involving scientists and the public (Asilomar, one example) and ethics guidelines were formulated. One, specifically, restricts experiments in germline recombinant gene manipulation to species not able to live outside specially devised laboratory conditions. A human walking about freely could generally be able to live outside a lab, so artificial gametes are a kind of "third rail" when speaking of human stem cells. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asilomar_Conference_on_Recombinant_DNA
There are many secrets that scientists yet didn't discover about these cells...It may be possible someday to rectify those conditions, and numerous others that were previously irremediable.
The production processes of male and female gametogenesis are meiotic (suggested search terms: meiosis, gametogenesis, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, spermatocyte, oocyte), whereas red blood cells are generated by erythropoiesis.
All of those generative processes involve various kinds of stem cells, which are likely to be foundationally involved in future cell and organ optative generation or regeneration possibilities.
methyla=methylation. It means adding a methyl group to DNA. This is a crude drawing of a methyl group:What is the importance of methyla to our organism?
There are many secrets that scientists yet didn't discover about these cells...
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I interpreted that statement as a mere observation that scientists have yet a great deal to learn about stem cells -- something acknowledging stem cell research as a promising area of future scientific discovery -- if that idea needs support to be presented on PF, here's a visual cite in support of it (SCR is an open access journal):jim mcnamara said:... unsupported statements ... Cite a reasonable article ...José Ricardo said:There are many secrets that scientists yet didn't discover about these cells...