# What force makes fluid flow faster in a smaller pipe?

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Thinking of individual fluid particles, my guess is that the "force" is simply particles backing up somewhat at the constriction point and contributing a higher proportion of collisions on particles ahead of them in a direction down the pipe. As the average movement of the particles is directed more and more parallel to the pipe, fewer particles impact with the pipe itself, resulting in lower pressure on the pipe.

I see lots of answers about the kinetic energy increasing, but I can't see where that energy comes from... To me it seems like the total energy of the particles stays the same.

Put another way, Bernoulli's equation shows the relationship between kinetic energy and pressure, but what causes the change in pressure or kinetic energy?

Whoops, reading it I realized I didn't say quite what I meant - not that fewer particles collide with the pipe, but that the angles of the collision become smaller and smaller.

## 1. What is the relationship between pipe size and fluid flow rate?

The flow rate of a fluid in a pipe is inversely proportional to the pipe's cross-sectional area. This means that as the pipe size decreases, the fluid flow rate increases.

## 2. Does the type of fluid affect its flow rate in a smaller pipe?

While the type of fluid can affect its viscosity and other properties, it does not have a significant impact on the flow rate in a smaller pipe. The relationship between pipe size and flow rate remains the same regardless of the type of fluid.

## 3. How does pressure affect fluid flow in a smaller pipe?

The pressure of a fluid can affect its flow rate in a smaller pipe. As the pressure increases, the flow rate also increases. This is due to an increase in the fluid's kinetic energy, allowing it to flow faster through the smaller pipe.

## 4. Is there a limit to how fast fluid can flow in a smaller pipe?

There is a limit to how fast fluid can flow in a smaller pipe, known as the maximum flow rate. This limit is determined by the size of the pipe, the properties of the fluid, and the pressure applied to it. If the flow rate exceeds this limit, the fluid can experience turbulence and disrupt the flow.

## 5. How can I increase the flow rate of a fluid in a smaller pipe?

To increase the flow rate of a fluid in a smaller pipe, you can increase the pressure or decrease the viscosity of the fluid. Additionally, using a pump or increasing the pipe's diameter can also increase the flow rate. However, it is important to consider the limitations and potential consequences of altering the flow rate for a specific application.