I understand the concept of a reactive species on a sort of vague and intuitive level: a reactive species is one that has lots of reactions that it can participate in. These tend to have large kinetic constants, be thermodynamically downhill and often have products that are also reactive, leading to knock-on effects. But reactivity isn't the same as energy, and it's possible to have highly reactive species with relatively low free energies and vice versa. I'm interested in whether there's any kind of formal theory of reactivity, and/or a quantitative definition of the concept. For example, we're often told that free radicals are reactive because they have an unpaired electron and they "want" to fill their outer shell. This makes perfect sense on an intuitive level, but I'd like to know if it can be taken further. Is there some way we can write down an equation that will tell us how reactive a species will be in a given environment, or is there some way we can measure a species' reactivity empirically and use it to make predictions? In particular, what does it really mean to say that one species is more or less reactive than another? Can we put a number to it and say that a species has a reactivity of 8.2 on some meaningful scale? thanks.