What Triggers Fatigue During Illness: Understanding the Pathophysiology?

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In summary: A.D.H."In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of pathological fatigue, with a focus on models that have been developed in the last decade. We highlight recent findings that suggest that pathological fatigue may be a result of multiple brain dysfunctions, including reduced activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, abnormal neurotransmission, and alterations in the central nervous system. We also discuss the potential implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating disorder."In summary, the neurobiological underpinnings of pathological fatigue may involve reduced activity of the HPA axis, abnormal neurotransmission, and alterations
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mktsgm
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What events trigger fatigue during an illness and how?
What is the mechanism of Fatigue what events initiate it and how?

The wikipedia definition of Fever:
The trigger of a fever, called a pyrogen, results in the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)

Generally just as a pyrogen such as PGE2 (or LPS) sets thermogenesis in motion, leading to a fever, what kind of events are triggered in physical and mental fatigue during an illness?

I want to know the basic pathophysiology or the sequence of events that are triggered to cause fatigue or tiredness during an illness.

Thanks in advance,
 
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What research have you done on this yourself? What have you found?
 
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phinds said:
What research have you done on this yourself? What have you found?
By fatigue, I mean the feeling of loss of energy.

Since ATP is the currency of energy, low ATP levels may be the underlying reason for fatigue.

Normally, as in a chronic fatigue syndrome, mitochondrial dysfunction may be suspected.

After going through a lot of NCBI articles on fatigue, I think this article gave me overall input on fatigue

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136529/

But, I feel during an illness (especially during/after a viral infection) somehow the process of inflammation may also be involved in fatigue and malaise.

In the Covid situation, for example, some had fever and fatigue/malaise during acute phase and some later had fatigue-only continuing for months, as long covid. Fatigue is found common both in acute and long covid. It is common in all other illnesses too.

So, I want to know how the immune system is involved in fatigue during an illness? Is any particular immune pathway (like complement, T-cell, macrophage activation) more involved in fatigue during an illness? If so, what and how, also...
 
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  • #4
Not what you are asking, but here's another reference that may be related.

https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3001643
Adverse effects following anti-COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-based BNT162b2 are alleviated by altering the route of administration and correlate with baseline enrichment of T and NK cell genes.
Syenina A, Gan ES, Toh JZN, de Alwis R, Lin LZ, Tham CYL, Yee JX, Leong YS, Sam H, Cheong C, Teh YE, Wee ILE, Ng DHL, Chan KR, Sim JXY, Kalimuddin S, Ong EZ, Low JG, Ooi EE.

"Herein, we found that higher baseline expression of genes related to T and NK cell exhaustion and suppression were positively correlated with the development of moderately severe fatigue after Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccination; increased expression of genes associated with T and NK cell exhaustion and suppression reacted to vaccination were associated with greater levels of innate immune activation at 1 day postvaccination."
 

Related to What Triggers Fatigue During Illness: Understanding the Pathophysiology?

1. What is the definition of fatigue?

Fatigue is a feeling of extreme tiredness or lack of energy that can negatively impact a person's physical, mental, and emotional well-being. It is a subjective experience and can vary in severity and duration.

2. What causes fatigue?

Fatigue can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical exertion, inadequate rest and sleep, medical conditions (such as anemia, thyroid disorders, or chronic fatigue syndrome), medications, stress, and lifestyle choices (such as poor diet and lack of exercise).

3. How does the body respond to fatigue?

When the body experiences fatigue, it triggers a stress response that increases the production of stress hormones, such as cortisol. This can lead to changes in the body's metabolism, immune system, and neurotransmitter levels, which can contribute to feelings of fatigue.

4. What are the long-term effects of chronic fatigue?

Chronic fatigue, or persistent fatigue that lasts for more than six months, can have a significant impact on a person's physical and mental health. It can lead to decreased productivity, impaired cognitive function, increased risk of accidents, and a higher risk of developing other health conditions.

5. Can fatigue be treated?

Yes, fatigue can be treated depending on the underlying cause. Treatment may include lifestyle changes (such as improving sleep hygiene and managing stress), medication, therapy, and addressing any underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and individualized treatment plan.

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