What's the difference between CTT and TTA?

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In summary, CTT and TTA can both be used to make leucine, but there is no difference in the production of leucine between the two methods. However, the difference between CTT and TTA may have other effects unrelated to the production of leucine. Additionally, tRNA can use a fifth base, inosine, which when in the 5' (five-prime) position of the anticodon can recognize a U, C or A. So rather than having 3 different tRNAs, GAI, which would pair with all three, can be created.
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Hopefully this is a pretty simple question, but I'm more a rock guy... :redface:

CTT and TTA can both be used to make leucine. So to make leucine there is no difference to an organism's DNA whether it has CTT or TTA in the right place. But might the difference between CTT and TTA have other effects not related to the production of leucine?
 
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Str1pe said:
Hopefully this is a pretty simple question, but I'm more a rock guy... :redface:

CTT and TTA can both be used to make leucine. So to make leucine there is no difference to an organism's DNA whether it has CTT or TTA in the right place. But might the difference between CTT and TTA have other effects not related to the production of leucine?

No, no difference. I suppose, it could make a difference if a regulatory element bound there as the "shape" of small segment would be different. But most DNA binding proteins don't bind in coding regions of genes. Rather to specific effector regions outside the coding region.

Minor clarification note, you've listed the non-coding strand of DNA.

The coding strand would be GAA or AAT. The mRNA would be CUU or UUA.

Probably going way beyond the scope of your question, but interesting nonetheless, is that since CUU/CUC/CUA all code for Leu, then they probably use the same tRNA.

tRNA can use a 5th base, inosine. Which when in the 5' (five-prime) position of the anticodon can recognize a U, C or A. So rather than having 3 different tRNAs you can have GAI, which would pair with all three. G and U can also form "wobble" base pairs with C or U and A or G, respectively, also reducing the number of tRNAs needed to recognize a codon.
 
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Most of the time, mutations that change the nucleic acid sequence but do not change the amino acid identity (called synonymous mutations) do not have any effect on an organism. There are, however, special cases where synonymous mutations do have an effect.

First, as bobze noted, synonymous mutations can change regulatory elements such as splice sites, which can change a protein's structure and function. There is also new research suggesting that synonymous mutations can affect protein folding, however. One mechanism may be through altering mRNA structure. If the mRNA folds back on itself to form a hairpin structure, the hairpin could impede the ribosome from translating the mRNA, causing the ribosome to pause. This pausing during protein synthesis might be useful to give the protein time to fold correctly before other segments of the protein are translated that might interfere with folding had a pause not occured. Synonymous mutations which alter mRNA structure may be able to alter the efficiency of protein folding in this way.

Another way the cell can pause protein synthesis is by encountering a codon that corresponds to a rare tRNA. By mutating a codon for a rare tRNA to a more abundant tRNA or vice versa, synonymous mutations can alter translational pausing and may be able to affect protein folding.
 
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Hmmm ... OK. Sounds like I have my work cut out for me. Thanks, fellas. :)
 
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CTT and TTA are both codons, which are sequences of three nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid. In this case, both CTT and TTA code for the amino acid leucine. Therefore, in terms of protein production, there is no difference between having CTT or TTA in the DNA sequence.

However, there may be other effects not related to the production of leucine. For example, the specific codon sequence may influence the speed at which the protein is produced or the efficiency of translation. Additionally, certain codons may be more prone to mutations, which could affect the overall function of the protein.

Furthermore, the difference in codon sequence may also have implications for gene regulation and gene expression. For instance, certain codons may be more recognized by specific transcription factors, leading to differences in gene expression levels.

In conclusion, while CTT and TTA may have the same end result in terms of producing leucine, their specific codon sequences may have other effects on protein production, gene regulation, and gene expression. Therefore, it is important for scientists to understand the potential differences between codon sequences and their impact on cellular processes.
 

What's the difference between CTT and TTA?

CTT stands for "Classroom Test of Transfer" while TTA stands for "Test of Transfer Assessment". Both are types of assessments used in education to measure a student's ability to apply what they have learned in a real-world setting.

What is the purpose of CTT and TTA?

The purpose of CTT is to assess students' ability to transfer their knowledge and skills from the classroom to a similar but unfamiliar context. The purpose of TTA is to assess students' ability to apply their knowledge and skills to real-world situations that may be more complex and challenging.

How are CTT and TTA different from traditional tests?

Traditional tests typically measure students' knowledge and understanding of a specific topic or subject. CTT and TTA, on the other hand, assess students' ability to apply their knowledge and skills in practical situations. They also often involve open-ended questions and tasks rather than multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank questions.

What are the benefits of using CTT and TTA in education?

CTT and TTA can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment of students' learning and understanding. They also encourage critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as students are required to apply their knowledge in new and unfamiliar situations. Additionally, these assessments can help educators identify areas where students may need additional support or instruction.

How are CTT and TTA scored?

CTT and TTA are typically scored using rubrics that assess students' performance on specific criteria. This can include factors such as accuracy, creativity, and reasoning. The scoring process may also involve teacher observation and feedback, rather than simply assigning a numerical grade.

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