I understand that in an electrical circuit, a positive test charge will gain electrical potential energy when moving from the negative to positive terminal of a battery (as it's moving against the electric field); it will then naturally flow around the circuit back to the negative terminal as it "falls back" from a higher electrical potential to a lower electrical potential. However, I cannot see why an electron (or "positive test charge" if we stick with conventional current flow) doesn't dissipate energy as it flows to the lower potential terminal between components - i.e. when the electron isn't travelling through any circuit component, but just the wire. For example, I know the electron will transfer energy to heat as it moves through a resistor, or light and heat as it moves through a filament lamp, but why would it also not be losing energy between these components? If you raise a ball to a particular height and let it fall, it immediately starts dissipating the gravitational potential energy (into kinetic energy). You can also transfer the energy into other forms if you put things along its path (e.g. a viscous liquid to transfer some of the energy to heat) - these additional "things" could represent the circuit components. However, between the "circuit components", the ball will still be dissipating energy. Lastly, once an electron has transferred all its energy after it passes through the last component, how is it still able to move to the lower electrical potential terminal of the battery? Thank you very much.