Why is the applied force inward for a spring

In summary, the conversation discusses the work done on a block by an external agent as it moves slowly from -x max to 0. The work can be calculated using the integral of (-kx) * dx from xi to xf, and is equal to the negative of the work done by the spring force. The work is negative because the external agent must push inward on the spring to prevent it from expanding, which is opposite to the direction of displacement. This is necessary when the spring is already compressed or stretched beyond its natural length.
  • #1
jwxie
281
0

Homework Statement



Consider the work done on the block by an external agent as the agent applies a force on the block and the block moves very slowly from xi = -x max to xf = 0.

Homework Equations



W = Fs * dr = integral of (-kx) * dx from xi to xf

The Attempt at a Solution



The book illustrates F applied to the left, and Fs to the right.

"We can calculate this work by noting that at any value of the position, the applied force is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the spring force Fs if it moves at a very slow speed. Fapp = -Fs = -(-kx) = kx

Therefore, the work done by this applied force on the block-spring system is like the following integral as shown in the picture:

http://i43.tinypic.com/24d4lee.jpg

http://i39.tinypic.com/dw6onl.jpg

My question:

1. Was the illustration above a demonstration of the phenomena that if we carry the spring by the applied force very slowly, in theory and ideally, the applied force (which is pulling toward the right) is exactly the opposite of Fs?

But further more, the book continues:
"The work is equal to the negative of the work done by the spring force for this displacement." <--- I think this satisfy my comment above, yet

"The work is negative because the external agent must push inward on the spring to prevent it from expanding and this direction is opposite the direction of the displacement of the point of application of the force (F*r) as the block moves from -Xmax to zero."

I can understand everything except the phrase in bold. We applied the force outward (pulling it to the right, if I am correct).There the Fs due to the constant k, has tendcy to move backward, am I correct?

2. If I am, then why is this applied force pushing inward? And what exactly is this "expanding"?

Thanks
 
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  • #2
It is equal to the word done by you to move the body from 0 to intial position, but this time the answer is +ve
 
  • #3
The work is negative because the external agent must push inward on the spring to prevent it from expanding and this direction is opposite the direction of the displacement of the point of application of the force (F*r) as the block moves from -Xmax to zero."

I can understand everything except the phrase in bold. We applied the force outward (pulling it to the right, if I am correct).There the Fs due to the constant k, has tendcy to move backward, am I correct?

sorry for being very lazy to read all you have wrote but I think it is -x max so the spring try to expand and so you have to pull it back to stop it from expanding.
 
  • #4
If you have already compressed the spring below its "natural length", then the force due to the compression of the spring is outward and so you need to apply equal force inward to keep it from expanding to its natural length.

If you have already stretched the spring beyond it "natural length", then the force due to the stretch of the spring is inward and so you need to apply equal force outward to keep it from contracting to its natural length.
 

1. Why does a spring compress when an inward force is applied?

When an inward force is applied to a spring, the coils of the spring are pushed closer together. This compression causes the spring to store potential energy, which is released when the force is removed.

2. How does the applied force affect the shape of a spring?

The applied force determines the amount of compression or extension of the spring. If the force is greater than the spring's natural length, it will compress; if the force is less, it will extend.

3. Why is the applied force inward for a spring instead of outward?

This is due to the nature of the material that springs are made of. Most springs are made of metal, which has a property called elasticity. Elastic materials have the ability to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in springs.

4. What happens to the applied force when a spring reaches its maximum compression?

When a spring reaches its maximum compression, the applied force is balanced by the force exerted by the compressed coils of the spring. At this point, the spring is in equilibrium and will not compress any further unless the applied force is increased.

5. Can the applied force on a spring be adjusted?

Yes, the applied force on a spring can be adjusted by changing the weight or force that is pushing or pulling on the spring. This will cause the spring to compress or extend to a different length, depending on the new force applied.

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