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I have some questions related to the X-Ray Diffraction using Laue's treatment.

I have attached some images. I have marked in red what I want to ask.

Kindly tell me where did these equations come? Is there any low level physics included too, if so then kindly guide me through.

How do you write PA as r.n[itex]_{o}[/itex]?

Where does it come, ∅[itex]_{r}[/itex]=[itex]\frac{2π}{λ}[/itex](r.N). I know this is path difference. But where does the (r.N) come?

How path difference become equal to 2πh[itex]^{'}[/itex]=2πnh

and,

How aNcosα=2asinθcosα ?

and similarly,

How 2asinθcosα=h[itex]^{'}[/itex]λ=nhλ

Thank you all.

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# X-Ray diffraction - The Von Laue's equation

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