This is similar to plugging an analog microphone into your ethernet port and thinking you will be able to record sound that way.
USB is more than just a digital signal. It has a rather complicated protocol that must be used. Your operating system's driver is trying to talk on USB to a single bit output, they are just not compatible. Also, you cannot drive just DATA+ or DATA-, they must be differentially signaled together.
You basically will need a "middle man" device that can convert the single bit output into something meaningful on USB that your computer can understand. They make microcontrollers with USB peripherals that have USB drivers to use those peripherals, and you could program the microcontroller to read the bit and send its status over USB. Other than that, you probably have to scrap the idea of using USB.