What is electrical resistance: Definition and 4 Discussions

The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. Its reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance, measuring the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S) (formerly called the 'mho' and then represented by ℧).
The resistance of an object depends in large part on the material it is made of. Objects made of electrical insulators like rubber tend to have very high resistance and low conductance, while objects made of electrical conductors like metals tend to have very low resistance and high conductance. This relationship is quantified by resistivity or conductivity. The nature of a material is not the only factor in resistance and conductance, however; it also depends on the size and shape of an object because these properties are extensive rather than intensive. For example, a wire's resistance is higher if it is long and thin, and lower if it is short and thick. All objects resist electrical current, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero.
The resistance R of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage V across it to current I through it, while the conductance G is the reciprocal:

For a wide variety of materials and conditions, V and I are directly proportional to each other, and therefore R and G are constants (although they will depend on the size and shape of the object, the material it is made of, and other factors like temperature or strain). This proportionality is called Ohm's law, and materials that satisfy it are called ohmic materials.
In other cases, such as a transformer, diode or battery, V and I are not directly proportional. The ratio V/I is sometimes still useful, and is referred to as a chordal resistance or static resistance, since it corresponds to the inverse slope of a chord between the origin and an I–V curve. In other situations, the derivative





{\textstyle {\frac {\mathrm {d} V}{\mathrm {d} I}}}
may be most useful; this is called the differential resistance.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. A

    Equation of resistance from given graph

    From the graph: $$lnR(T)=\frac{-lnR(0)T^2_○}{T^2}+lnR(0)$$ I have assumed ##R(0)## to be the value of ##R## at ##1/T^2=0## and ##T_○## to be the value of ##T## at ##lnR(T)=0## From this I get, $$R(T)=e^{lnR(0)×\left(1-\frac{T_○^2}{T^2}\right)}$$ $$R(T)=R(0)^{\left(1-\frac{T_○^2}{T^2}\right)}$$...
  2. Dario56

    I Resistance and specific resistance relationships

    I'm using a four-probe system (nextron) to measure the voltage between the two points of my sample. Sample has a cylindrical shape and it's placed on its base inside the instrument. The probes are placed on its upper surface (the base of the cylinder). From the voltage measured, I'd like to...
  3. bmhiggs

    I Why does resistance reduce current in whole circuit?

    Ohm's law states that current is inversely proportional to resistance, but on the quantum level, why does that actually slow the current down for the whole circuit? In all of the basic explanations, it talks about how the more densely packed matter in the resistor creates more collisions and...
  4. U

    Question about this unusual galvanic bath

    Hello dear forum members. I've run into some problem and I'm hoping someone here can give me a hint on how to solve it. There is an electrochemical method for separating some binary metal alloys based on the cementation phenomenon. I'll show you how it works with the example of separatting...