What is Hydrocarbon: Definition and 47 Discussions

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structures, it is difficult to generalize further. Most anthropogenic emissions of hydrocarbons are from the burning of fossil fuels including fuel production and combustion. Natural sources of hydrocarbons such as ethylene, isoprene, and monoterpenes come from the emissions of vegetation.

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  1. zachary570

    Chemistry Finding the molecular formula of an unknown hydrocarbon

    Hello, I am having some trouble finishing this problem from my textbook and would like some insight on the problem. We are looking for the molecular formula of a hydrocarbon. So, if we let x = number of C atoms and y = number of H atoms then we need to find ##C_xH_y##. From the problem...
  2. I

    Chemistry Finding the molecular formula of a hydrocarbon

    Moles are proportional to volume. There is 1000 cm3 of gas (carbon dioxide gas plus water vapour) after the reaction, and 200 cm3 of water vapour after the carbon dioxide has been absorbed. Therefore, there is 800 cm3 of carbon dioxide. Since the stoichiometric ratio of carbon dioxide to the...
  3. L

    Chemistry Find the formula of a hydrocarbon using combustion data

    number of moles of CO2 =0.089moles (using 2/22.4) number of moles of water = 0.067 (using 1.205/18) I know that all the carbon from the hydrocarbon is in the CO2 and all the hydrogen from the hydrocarbon is in the water and water creates x2 hydrogens so number of moles of C : H = 0.089 ...
  4. J

    Extremely hydrogenated carbon compounds

    I am doing some theoretical free-lance work on prospects of chemical rocket fuels with unusually high heating values and specific impulses. One of my latest interests is prospects for using fuels with molecules made of one carbon atom and 5 or more hydrogen atoms. Specific examples I am...
  5. Muhammad Danish

    Organic Chemistry, Hydrocarbons

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution C=C double bonds means that it is not an Alkane because an Alkane is saturated hydrocarbon. So the answer should be from A, B or C.
  6. hilbert2

    Flame in a background atmosphere of fuel

    In combustion science, typical flames that are studied are premixed or diffusion flames, where a stream of methane, propane or some other fuel is released to an atmosphere of air or oxygen and ignited. Another scenario is a "pool fire", where a puddle of volatile solvent is burning in air and...
  7. hilbert2

    Infrared spectrum of n-heptane

    I have a work assignment where I'm supposed to calculate the transmittance of blackbody radiation through liquid n-heptane, and I have data of the heptane's absorption coefficient on the wavelength interval from 2.6 to 15 micrometers (it has significant peaks at about 3.5 ##\mu##m, 7.0 ##\mu##m...
  8. T

    Phases of hydrocarbons in a compressed gas cylinder

    I'm currently in the process of selecting gas mixtures to calibrate a gas chromatograph. One of the gas mixtures I'm interested in has the following composition by percent volume: methane (CH4): 95% carbon dioxide (CO2): 1% butane (C4H10): 1% acetylene (C2H2): 1% nitrogen (N2): 2% The gas...
  9. A

    Non-combustible exothermic oxidation of a Hydrocarbon

    I have 2 queries and would be great if someone can lead me to some specific answers - 1. Is it possible to oxidise a complex hydrocarbon like Ethanol or Gasoline in a non-combustible but exothermic reaction? 2. If this kind of oxidation is possible, what would be the best catalysts to achieve...
  10. Cyril St-Amand

    Fischer-Tropsch Conversion / Kinetics

    Hi, We are currently working on a small-scale Fischer-Tropsch process. The modeling software we are using is HYSYS (Aspen). We want to produce X barils of oil / day using syngas (H2:CO ratio 2:1) using cobalt catalysts. The problem we are currently facing is that we do not have the kinetics...
  11. RoboNerd

    Complete Combustion - which hydrocarbon will consume more O2

    Homework Statement one gram of each of the following gases is introduced into a 10 L container at 25 degrees C a) propane b) ethane c) methane d) pentane which gas will consume the greatest mass of oxygen upon complete combustion? The solutions says that the right answer is D. I do not know...
  12. Stephanus

    Heat of Combustion, Enthelpy

    Dear PF Forum, I have read this link in Wiki. But I don't understand what it means. Can someone help me? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion A: Heat of combustion of CH4 is 50.09 MJ/kg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_enthalpy_change_of_formation_(data_table) B: Enthalpy of...
  13. Stephanus

    Energy Released by Hydrocarbon Reactions

    Dear PF Forum, First of all, I'd like to thanks PF Forum for giving me invaluable answers all this time. Now, I have a "situation" here. My church wants to conserve environment by changing cooking oil into biodiesel from its parishioners I'd like to know how effective this effort is. I have...
  14. Stephanus

    Chemical Composition & Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Dear PF Forum, Actually I've never visited chemistry forum. It's cosmology and SR that interests me. Tomorrow at Thursday 30th July, 14:00 GMT. I have to present a service (religion) about global warming. But there's some facts that I need to know fast. Can anyone help me? What is the formula of...
  15. ocram

    Blowout characteristic of Hydrocarbon Combustion

    Hi everybody! The problem which I am dealing with is surprisingly very well depicted in open source lecture notes made in October 29th of 2012, titled: " MAE 5310: COMBUSTION FUNDAMENTALS", available on the web...
  16. D

    Identifying Hydrocarbon X: A Homework Challenge

    Homework Statement Combustion of hydrocarbon X in excess oxygen produces 0.66g of carbon dioxide, and 0.27 g of water. At room tempertaure and pressure , X is a gas with density 1.75gdm^-3 . What could the molecular of X be? What is the ans ? i only managed to get the empirical formula is CH2...
  17. T

    Mastering Naming Hydrocarbons: Tips and Tricks for Homework Assignments

    Homework Statement The Attempt at a Solution The answer is supposed to be D but I can't figure out why, my method gave me B counting the number of points in the longest chain there are 7 and there are only single bonds so without the branches I have heptane. there is a ethyl attached to the...
  18. T

    Need help naming a hydrocarbon

    Homework Statement The Attempt at a Solution The answer is supposedly C but I can't figure out why its not E. first I count the number of C in the longest chain. There are 7 C and there are only single bonds so the the root and suffix is heptane. there is a chain with one C (methyl) and one...
  19. Ritzycat

    KJ per hydrocarbon "empirical formula unit"

    Homework Statement A sample of a hydrocarbon is combusted completely in O2(g) to produce 19.65gCO2(g), 4.023gH2O(g), and 280kJ of heat. Calculate the value of ΔH∘f per empirical-formula unit of the hydrocarbon. Homework Equations None I know of The Attempt at a Solution Previous calculations...
  20. M

    Determining an unknown Hydrocarbon X

    Homework Statement A gaseous hydrocarbon X had an approximate molecular weight of 57. It reacted with both bromine and dilute permanganate solutions. Give the structural formula of the only 3 compounds consistent with this information. X was treated with hydrogen bromide, and the resulting...
  21. K

    Naming of hydrocarbon?

    can I name the first compund as 1-amino-4-methylcyclohaeaxne? can i name the second compound as 1-amino-2-methyl-cyclohexane? why and why not?
  22. Q

    Most Exothermic Combustion of Hydrocarbon

    Homework Statement Which would have the most negative heat of combustion? Consider only the best conformer. cis-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane Homework Equations The more negative the heat of combustion, the more exothermic the combustion. We are...
  23. U

    Heat transfer through an insulated steel wall due to hydrocarbon fire

    Afternoon all, I am interested to hear any and all suggestions as to how one would go about modelling the rise in temperature on the "safe" side of a wall, after a given time period over which the other side was exposed to a hydrocarbon pool fire. The configuration I have been looking at...
  24. C

    Hydrocarbon Units: ppmC vs ppmC3 vs ppmC6

    I am working on a project about pollution emission, but I am not a chemist. I am seeing the units ppmC, ppmC3 and ppmC6 almost everyday, and I have trouble understanding what they stand for. The only definition I get is "Parts per million hydrocarbon concentration expressed as methane (for...
  25. P

    Calculate Carbon to Hydrogen Ratio and Air to Fuel Ratio in Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Homework Statement In an engine test the dry exhaust gas analysis is CO2: 5.27%; O2: 13.38%: N2: 81.35%. Assuming that the fuel is a pure hydrocarbon of the form CxHy, and that it is completely burnt, calculate the ratio, by mass, of carbon to hydrogen in the fuel and the air to fuel...
  26. N

    Identify any errors in the name of each hydrocarbon?

    Homework Statement Identify any errors in the name of each hydrocarbon? 2,4-diethyloctane The Attempt at a Solution I drew a complete diagram of the molecule but I still do not understand what is wrong with it. Thank you.
  27. Simfish

    How do you knock off a halogen from a hydrocarbon chain?

    Without introducing any other atoms or double bonds into the chain? (just replace the halogen with a hydrogen atom). Assume for now that the halogen was introduced in the middle of the carbon chain.
  28. J

    Does the Carbon in a hydrocarbon do anything?

    Does the Carbon in a hydrocarbon do anything for combustion?
  29. L

    Chemistry Hydrocarbon molecular weight grade 11

    Homework Statement A gaseous hydrocarbon weighing 0.185g occupies a volume of 110.cm^3 at 26 celsius and 743mmHg. what is the molecular weight of this compound? Homework Equations PV=nRT The Attempt at a Solution i have no idea where to start ;(
  30. N

    Hydrogen & hydrocarbon fuels

    Hydrogen burning in a star breaks chemical bonds and rearranges atoms in all hydrocarbon fuels.True or false? Thanks! =)
  31. L

    Hydrocarbon empirical formula question

    Homework Statement Q. A Hydrocarbon (CnHm) is burned completely in oxygen to produce a mixture of CO2 and H2O. The total pressure of mixture is 1.200 atm and partial pressure of H2O is 0.686 atm. What is empirical formula of Hydrocarbon Homework Equations pV=nRT pa/ptotal =...
  32. K

    Quick question: Hydrocarbon nomenclature

    I just have a quick question about hydrocarbon nomenclature: When picking the "parent chain", I know that you're supposed to pick the one with the longest carbon chain... does the parent chain always have to have the double/triple bonds? Or can the double/triple bonds be located in a sidechain...
  33. T

    > Wavelength range of Hydrocarbon spectral emissions

    I was checking the NIST site with their Hydrocarbon line database search utility, and the frequencies of the lines for CH, CH2, and CH4 are on the order of 10^11 Hz approximately. That leads to wavelengths that are much larger than the visible region. Am I reading the search results...
  34. E

    Organic Chem - Hydrocarbon Naming

    Homework Statement Name the following compound: CH3CH2C(CH3)2CH(CH2CH3)CH2CH2CH3 It's an alkane (Is there a way to see that it's an alkane when it's in this format?) Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I really have no idea where to start. I can name compounds...
  35. T

    What is the Process of Heating a Hydrocarbon in the Presence of Silicates?

    [b]1. I have a relatively simple question, but I can't think of the answer. A high bp hydrocarbon (X) is obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. (X) is then heated in the presence of silicate materials. only 3 new hydrocarbons were from this proces. All I want to know is what...
  36. B

    Hydrocarbon enthelpy profiles

    Hi i am a IB student currently working on my extended essay in the field of chemistry and was wondering if anyone could suggest where i could find the enthalpy profiles for specific hydrocarbons including standard enthalpy changes for fuels such as: petroleum, diesel, ethanol, methanol...
  37. S

    Chemistry Molecular formula of hydrocarbon

    Homework Statement 0.1 dm^3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon may require 0.45 dm^3 of oxygen for a complete combustion to give 300 cm^3 of Carbon dioxide. All volumes are measured in the same environment. Calculate the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon. The Attempt at a Solution i tried...
  38. C

    Determining Molecular Formula of Hydrocarbon from Reactions

    This problem was proposed to us by our Chemistry professor. Consider a sample of a hydrocarbon at 0.959atm and 298K. Upon combusting the entire sample in oxygen, you collect a mixture of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at 1.51atm and 375K. This mixture has a density of 1.391 g/L and...
  39. L

    IUPAC name of a branched chain hydrocarbon

    Hi, I'm just starting high-school organic chemistry and as is customary I've begun with nomenclature of organic compounds. Till now I've covered aliphatic hydrocarbons and will be starting on nomenclature of functional groups. The following problem from K.L. Chugh's Senior Chemistry Vol. II...
  40. M

    Solving a Hydrocarbon Molar Mass Problem

    Hey everyone, I have this problem to solve: A hydrocarbon (CxHy) contains 92.3% of Carbon and 7.7% of Hydrogen. 1) What is its molar mass, if the density of its smoke to the air is d=2.69 ? 92.3/7.7 = 12 So 12x=y This is the first equation. I have to find a second one to find what is x...
  41. H

    Chemical Bonding in Hydrocarbon

    While studying chemical bonding for methane,ethyne etc., I have made the following assumption to help me to remember the sigma bond, pai bond, and hybrid orbitals. 1. Every single covalent bond around a carbon atom is a sigma bond. 2. Only one of the bond in double and triple covalent bond...
  42. N

    Nonpolar C18 Hydrocarbon: Yes or No?

    would a c18 hydrocarbon be polar or nonpolar--y or y not?
  43. D

    Impact of Temperature on Burning Hydrocarbon in a Closed System

    In a closed system a hydrocarbon is burnt. The products which are produced have a temperature of X degree celcius. What will happen once the temperature of whole of the system becomes X degree celcius? How will it affect the burning of hydrocarbon? Thanks a lot for any help. Abd. S.
  44. J

    Hydrocarbon Structural Diagrams

    Hello, I was quite curious about this one here... If I were asked to draw a structural diagram, for example, of trimethylbutane, where would I put the three branches of methyl. When they don't specify the location of the branches what does one do? I'd normally be expecting something like...
  45. G

    Fat hydrocarbon chains question

    Considering that fats have long hydrocarbon chains, what do theses terms mean when applied to fats does this mean the the longer the hydrocarbon chain is the more space t will occupy. I am not sure can i have some help
  46. G

    Considering that fats have long hydrocarbon chains, what do theses

    Considering that fats have long hydrocarbon chains, what do theses terms mean when applied to fats does this mean the the longer the hydrocarbon chain is the more space t will occupy. I am not sure can i have some help
  47. M

    Hydrocarbon molecules in space

    http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994552 Maybe is true after all that we are all "sons of the stars" This is a strong evidence that life is spread throughout the cosmos, don't you think?