# Phase transition Definition and 15 Discussions

In chemistry, thermodynamics, and many other related fields, phase transitions (or phase changes) are the physical processes of transition between the basic states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas, as well as plasma in rare cases.
A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change, often discontinuously, as a result of the change of external conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition. Phase transitions commonly occur in nature and are used today in many technologies.

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1. ### Can a single-phase solid solution have a martensitic transformation?

I'm trying to investigate the possibility of martensitic transformation in a non-iron alloy, described as a single-phase alpha-solid-solution (Nickel-Silver CuNi12Zn25Pb1, CW404J). I know that Cu-Ni-Zn alloys with higher zinc amounts show even shape memory effects. And that CuNi12Zn25Pb1 is no...
2. ### Finding transition temperature of Landau ferroelectric

So for part a, I separately minimized F wrt ##\theta## and ##P## and got the following. $$\frac {\partial f} {\partial \theta} = a_{\theta}(T-T_{\theta})\theta + b_{\theta}\theta^3 - tP = 0$$ $$\frac {\partial f} {\partial P} = \alpha(T-T_P)P -t\theta$$ $$P = t\theta \alpha (T-T_P)$$ Then...
3. ### Liquid-solid transition

Hello! I'm struggling with this exercise for three days already. Would appreciate any help. Thanks in advance. This is my thoughts... So a number density ρ=N/V. As I understand N doesn’t change through transition, but V changes The free energy F=U-TS or dF=-PdV-SdT As the liquid coexists...
4. ### Proof of second-order phase transition for a Van Der Waals Gas

How is it proved that Van Der Waals gas is a second order phase transition? The second order derivative of the pressure (P ) with respect to volume ( V ) don't have a discontinuity ( except at point V = Nb , but the pressure is not existent for V<=Nb ). So how come Van der waals gas describes...
5. ### Phase transition between two phases with different Cv

I actually can't figure out what kind of phase transition it is and how to proceed through..!
6. ### Spin 1 Ising model

I did the first part using the transfer matrix method: $$Z = Tr(T^{N})$$ In this case, the transfer matrix will be $$T(i,i') = \begin{pmatrix} e^{\beta J} & 1 & e^{-\beta J}\\ 1 &1 &1 \\ e^{-\beta J} & 1 & e^{\beta J} \end{pmatrix}$$ To get the trace of $T^N$, you find the...
7. ### Heat Capacity relations for 1st order phase transition

Homework Statement Prove the following relation for which clausius equation holds : Cs=Cp-αV(ΔH/ΔV) Where Cs=∂q/∂T at constant S and is the heat capacity in the coexistence line of 2 phases Homework Equations dq=dU+dW dP/dT=ΔH/(ΔV*T) The Attempt at a Solution I do not fully understand why q...
8. ### I Scale invariant thermal fluctuations

There's something that has been bugging me for over a year now and I seem to be unable to find the answer. I would appreciate it very much if somebody could help me out. The thing is that I don't understand how it is possible that in second order phase transitions the correlation legth becomes...
9. ### Clapeyron Equation problem

Hello everyone, I'm doing revision for a final exam in Thermodynamics and i found this exercise i can't solve: A particular material has a latent heat of vaporization Δh, constant along the coexistence curve. One mole of this material exists in two.phase (liquid-vapor) equilibrium in a...
10. ### I Cosmological electroweak phase transition

There is a question that has been bugging and puzzling me for a long time and I wondered if somebody could help me to figure out what the answer is or where I am not thinking straight. Let us assume that the standard model of particle physics is more "right" than "wrong" and there is no such a...
11. ### I Phase transitions university classes

There's something that I'd like to know and haven't been able to find in any book: 1.- Is the number of second order phase transition university classes known? 2.- Do we know quantitatively know the behavior of all such second order phase transition university classes? 3.- Do we know the...
12. ### A Do cosmologists take spontaneous symmetry breaking seriously?

I suppose that my questions are pretty basic, but I've been trying to find out the answers and not succeeded. 1.- Do cosmologists really think that the vacuum state suddenly changed in the early Universe? If so, would it be like a phase transition? If so, first or second orther? 2.- Does the...
13. ### Phase transition at high energies?

Hi,I'm new here, and created my account solely for following question: Does the incompatibility between QM and Relativity indicate a phase transition at high energies? (as in: indicate more than a "could be")
14. ### The difference between order parameter and state parameter?

At first, we need some state parameters(like P/T/V) to fully describe a system. And the order parameter is also a parameter which could describe the property of the system. However, in the Laudau theory, why it said that order parameter is an external parameter(not a independent variable)? Is...
15. ### Order Parameter in a Gauge Theory, Can we find one in a Gauge Theory(like QCD)?

Hello Community! I can't find a good answer(if there is) to my question. When in statistical mechanics we can define the order parameter for to study some phase transition. we need to define a order parameter. Now, I want to know if we can to define/find some "order parameter" for to...