I know that in electric circuits charge imbalances can build up on capacitor plates, wire bends, and antennas. But is this also the case for a resistor with a voltage applied between its terminals? In other words, which of the following diagrams would be correct? Note that a + stands for an unbalanced, stationary positive charge; a - stands for an unbalanced, stationary negative charge; and a 0 stands for no charge imbalance present at the spot. Moving charges are depicted by the J (current density) vector. Please note that I have depicted the resistor with electric field and current density vectors rather than using the standard voltage and current quantities as the root of my problem understanding this scenario is that I am having trouble accounting for what is giving rise to the electric field vector. I am aware that Va-Vb = Ed, where d is the distance across the resistor, but can't only unbalanced electric charges or changing magnetic fields give rise to electric fields? So how can you trace the charges bringing about the E vector back to the voltage applied across the resistor?