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I found the following equation to calculate the average mass flow rate:

ṁ = A * Cd * √(2ρΔP)

(https://www.palmbeachschools.org/sc.../05/Bottle_Rocket_Calculations_Simplified.pdf)

Where:

ṁ is the mass flow rate

A is the area of the nozzle

Cd is the coefficient of drag

p is the density

and ΔP is the average Pressure acting on the water

Does anyone know where this equation is derived from cause I can't find it anywhere?

Thanks in advance for all replies.