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Can photons create their own gravity?

  1. May 9, 2009 #1
    Question.. I understand photons will curve around planets in space due to their gravity (or curved space-time). But do photons create their own gravity relative to their energy? From what I can gather, gravity is more of an aspect of energy than mass.
  2. jcsd
  3. May 9, 2009 #2


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    From the point of view of general relativity, mass and energy are equivalent, so photons have a gravitational effect.
  4. May 9, 2009 #3
    Thanks, Mathman.

    Does this imply photons with more energy have more gravity, and will 'react' differently to a planet/star's gravity? Has this been observed?
  5. May 10, 2009 #4
    The curvature due to photon energy would be extremely negligible, and thus, very very hard to measure. It's hard enough to measure the curvature from a massive object.
  6. May 10, 2009 #5
    It has been observed that photon's deflection angle does not depend on its energy/momentum (or wavelength). Otherwise, the (displaced) image of the distant star would be seen as a little rainbow. It fact, it remains point-like in spite of the light bending. The deflection angle is (approximately) [tex] \Delta p/p [/tex], where p is photon's momentum and [tex] \Delta p [/tex] is the transversal momentum change in the gravity field. From this you can conclude that [tex] \Delta p [/tex] is proportional to p. So, yes, higher energy photons are deflected more.
  7. May 10, 2009 #6
    It is my understanding that a minute amount of rainbowing does occur but that this is attributed to refraction by the Sun's chromosphere and is computationally removed to produce a more accurate image. Is that right?
  8. May 10, 2009 #7
    I am not aware of such experimental details. On the other hand, it is plausible that the proportionality between [tex]\Delta p [/tex] and p holds only approximately, so some minor rainbowing may be present in exact theory, even if the chromosphere effect is not present.
  9. May 12, 2009 #8
    I thought photons just followed a "straight" path through curved space time (or whatever is closest to straight), so why would their energy make any difference? Any photon travels at the same speed and flies through the same curved space-time along the shortest path.

    As for the gravity created by photons: yes, photons don't have mass but they do have energy and any kind of energy (even including gravity itself) causes gravity. In fact, the amount of gravity coming from the photons inside the sun is probably far from negligible. They have so much energy that their pressure is even important in helping to keep the sun from collapsing, so we probably feel their gravity quite noticeably too.
  10. May 12, 2009 #9
    Last edited by a moderator: May 4, 2017
  11. May 13, 2009 #10
    This brings up another controversial matter though, because according to Einstein energy and mass are equivalent, so saying that photons have no mass would in turn say that they have no energy, and vise versa, in saying they have energy says they have mass, so either Einstein was "wrong" or there is something about photons that we still don't know
    Last edited: May 13, 2009
  12. May 13, 2009 #11
    "The Photon" has no mass. the mass of "The Photon" can be found to be exactly equal to zero in a table of elementry particles. On the other hand, photons have mass. A culminated beam of photons has virtually no mass. A perfect planar wave has no mass. A bunch of photons distributed in a spherical box curves space exactly as you would expect from a bunch of atoms distributed in the same box.

    Specifically, it is not just mass, but the stress energy tensor that curves space in 10 different ways. A perfectly culminated beam of photons curves space differently than, say, a rod of solid matter with velocity along its length. Unfortunately, I don't know the details of the difference.
    Last edited: May 13, 2009
  13. May 13, 2009 #12
    I would expect light to produce the same gravitational field that an equivalent amount of matter+antimatter together would produce.

    light being a wave should refract around massive objects due to gravitational time dilation. didnt some russian guy prove that it could all be accounted for by time dilation?
  14. May 13, 2009 #13

    The correct statement of special relativity is that energy (E), mass (m) and momentum (p) are inter-related. They are connected by formula

    [tex] E= \sqrt{m^2c^4 + p^2c^2} [/tex]

    If a massive body is at rest (p=0), then you'll get the famous energy-mass relationship

    [tex] E= mc^2 [/tex]

    If a body has zero mass (like photons), then another famous relationship follows

    [tex] E= pc [/tex]

    So, massless particles can have non-zero energy.
    Last edited: May 14, 2009
  15. May 13, 2009 #14
    To be a bit clearer

    "photon has zero rest mass, which is the mass we measured in its co-moving frame although it is not possible to do so.
    In general, photon do has mass which is due to its momentum, namely [tex] E=pc [/tex].
    With non-zero mass, there should have non-zero gravity created.

    Here i have a thought experiment:
    Suppose, in a free space, a pair of laser beams (sharp enough of course) are shot out parallel to each other with a distance apart. Will these two beams converge together eventually? it should happen, isn't it?

    ooooops~! i was a bit slower ...
    Last edited: May 13, 2009
  16. May 14, 2009 #15
    May I please ask two questions? 1. When photons travel together are they at rest with respect to each other? 2. Does zero rest mass mean that photons traveling together don't feel gravity towards each other?
  17. May 14, 2009 #16


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    I think you mean "collimated."

    "Culminated" is a genuine word, but it has an entirely different meaning. :smile:
  18. May 14, 2009 #17
    Oh well. What's an ell between friends...and a u.

    I object strongly. It really ought to be 'columnate'. I will rite the editors.
  19. May 15, 2009 #18
    Photons do follow a straight path, but "straight" depends on the local curvature of spacetime which IS affected by local energies and masses....more energy means more curvature which means more deflection....
  20. May 15, 2009 #19
    1. yes, like two cars each going along the highway at 55MPH.

    2. according to post #13, it looks that way...
  21. May 16, 2009 #20
    1. From the point of view of a photon, everything is stationary. But that's a bit of a strange way of looking at things, because the "point of view of a photon" is not really a valid reference frame. Lengths are infinitely contracted, so the photon arrives at its destination (even if it's billions of light years away) immediately after departure (after zero time measured by the photon). The entire universe becomes two-dimensional, and the photon travels across its thickness (which is zero). If this doesn't appear to make sense, you will understand why people say this is not a "valid" reference frame. Observers can only travel slower than light.
    2. No, gravity is caused by energy. Mass is just one kind of energy, but it's so huge that we used to think this was the only cause for gravity. However, other kinds of energy, like pressure for example, cause gravity too. A photon definitely has energy, so it does cause a small amount of gravity.
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