# Closed loop problem for lighting in thunderstorm?

• goodphy
In summary: is asking about how the cloud becomes charged so it can discharge again, and the weather expert suggests looking for a journal article.
goodphy
Hello.

As far as I know, every circuit capable to flow current must be closed. In other word, open circuit can not flow the current, obviously. Right now, I would like to know this is also true for lighting in bad weather.

When bottom of the dark and heavy cloud get more and more electron by convectional flow inside the cloud (positive charges are accumulated at the top of the cloud), air breakdown occurs once voltage between cloud and ground overruns breakdown voltage of the air. Then current flows from the cloud to ground. I believe majority carrier of this current is electrons from cloud.

In circuit theory, this current must be within closed circuit. But I don't see what is closed loop in this case. It looks like current flow doesn't requires closed loop at first glancing.

How can I overcome this apparent contradiction?

Don't forget the displacement current. This is the same "current" that goes through a capacitor and was one of the key concepts in the development of Maxwell's equations. As the conduction current goes one direction, the displacement current goes the other direction, completing the closed loop.

From a circuit standpoint you can think of lightning as closing a switch in a RC circuit where the capacitor (cloud/earth) is initially charged and the lightning is the current through the resistor.

goodphy
Oh thanks. Yes. displacement current must be included to complete the circuit. Equivalent circuit that charged cloud and Earth acts as a charged capacitor and lighting as a current through resistor is just beautiful.

Can I have one more question? Once electrons are escaping from the cloud, cloud has to be charge-neutrality again. How cloud get electrons to restore charges?

That is a good question, but unfortunately, I don't know the answer to that part. Maybe some meterologist or weather enthusiast here can describe how the cloud becomes charged.

## 1. What is a closed loop problem for lighting in thunderstorm?

A closed loop problem for lighting in thunderstorm refers to the challenge of creating a sustainable and efficient lighting system that can withstand the unpredictable and harsh conditions of a thunderstorm. This includes ensuring the safety of the system and minimizing the potential for damage or failure during a thunderstorm.

## 2. Why is a closed loop system important for lighting in thunderstorm?

A closed loop system is important for lighting in thunderstorm because it allows for continuous monitoring and adjustments to be made to the lighting system during a storm. This can help prevent potential hazards and damages, as well as ensure the system continues to function properly.

## 3. What are the main components of a closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm?

The main components of a closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm typically include sensors, controllers, and actuators. The sensors detect changes in the environment, the controllers receive and analyze this data, and the actuators make adjustments to the lighting system based on the controller's instructions.

## 4. How does a closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm work?

A closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm works by constantly monitoring the environment and making real-time adjustments to the lighting system based on the data collected. For example, if a sensor detects a sudden change in wind speed or direction, the controller will adjust the lighting to ensure it remains stable and secure.

## 5. What are the benefits of using a closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm?

Some of the benefits of using a closed loop system for lighting in thunderstorm include increased safety, improved efficiency, and reduced risk of damage to the lighting system. It also allows for better control and management of the lighting system, ensuring it can withstand the unpredictable conditions of a thunderstorm.

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