# Electrical power systems question

• Shaun_W
In summary: The power factor is 0.85 if the power output is still at 212.5MW. If the power output is reduced to 207.5MW, the power factor will be 0.85 - 0.85 = 0.14.
Shaun_W

## Homework Statement

3. Generator G [STRIKE]in the above system[/STRIKE] is a steam turbine driven, 4-pole round rotor synchronous generator and has the following data:

Rated output 250 MVA
Rated Voltage 13.8 kV
Rated frequency 60 Hz
Rated power factor 0.85 lag

Maximum reactive power 140 MVAr
Minimum reactive power -140 MVAr

Impedance data
(to a base of rating)

Calculate

(i) the synchronous speed.
[2]
(ii) the complex power output (P + jQ) when operating at rated conditions.
[4]
(iii) the turbine output torque.
[6]
(iv) if the power output is reduced by 15% calculate the complex power output if the terminal voltage and excitation voltage remain constant.
[10]
(v) if the excitation current is now reduced resulting in a reduction of E by 20% calculate the complex power output if the terminal voltage and active power output remain constant.
[10]
(vi) the theoretical steady state stability limit power available with the parameters of part (v).
[4]
(vii) draw the operating chart for this generator assuming a maximum excitation voltage of 1.9 pu and a 10% stability margin.
[14]

## Homework Equations

Just the standard electrical equations, I hope. Although I could be missing something.

## The Attempt at a Solution

Part i) was easy enough, I got 1800rpm because N = (120f)/P = (120*60)/4 = 1800rpm.

Part ii) is where I'm stuck. It seems really easy but I think I am missing something. What I think is that S = 250MVA and Q = 140MVAr; therefore P can be found with simple Pythagoras and is 207MW. That sort of makes sense as S x pf should equal the actual power, and 250 x 0.85 = 212, which is fairly close.

Part iii) also seems far too simple to be true. Torque is equal to power x speed, so 207MW x 188rad/s, which equals 39GNm...

I'm a mechanical student and really quite lost.

Thanks for any help.

ii) Q=140MVAr is incorrect as the rated power. Q=cos(phi) * S. Q=140MVAr is as stated the max/min reactive power, not the rated.

iii) To be strictly correct you need the efficiency of the generator to calculate the input power. If not given, your answer might be considered correct.

I've calculated the complex power output to be 212.5 + j131.7, i.e. 212.5MW output with 131.7MVArs.

An efficiency is not given; however, it is possible to calculate one from the data supplied? It's just that it seems to be worth a lot of marks [6] for something so easy.

And also, if the terminal and excitation voltages remain constant whilst the power output decreases, does this also mean that the power factor remains constant? I'm assuming not.

Hello,

Thank you for your question and for providing the relevant data for the generator. I understand that working with electrical power systems can be complex and challenging. I will do my best to provide a clear and concise response to your questions.

Part i) You have correctly calculated the synchronous speed of the generator to be 1800 rpm using the formula N = (120f)/P. This is an important value to know for the other calculations.

Part ii) To calculate the complex power output (P + jQ), we can use the formula S = P + jQ, where S is the apparent power, P is the active power, and Q is the reactive power. S is given as 250 MVA, and you have correctly calculated the power factor (pf) to be 0.85. Using the formula S = P/pf, we can find P to be 212 MW. Therefore, the complex power output is 212 + j140 MVA.

Part iii) Your calculation for the turbine output torque is correct. Torque is equal to power (P) multiplied by speed (N). In this case, the turbine output torque is 207 MW x 1800 rpm = 39 GNm.

Part iv) If the power output is reduced by 15%, the new active power would be 212 MW x 0.85 = 180.2 MW. Using the same formula as in part ii), we can calculate the new complex power output to be 180.2 + j140 MVA.

Part v) If the excitation current is reduced resulting in a 20% reduction of E, the new excitation voltage (E) would be 0.8 x 1.9 pu = 1.52 pu. The active power output would remain constant at 212 MW, but the new reactive power output can be calculated using the formula Q = P x tan(cos^-1(pf)), where pf is the power factor. This results in a new reactive power output of 164 MVAr. Therefore, the new complex power output would be 212 + j164 MVA.

Part vi) The theoretical steady state stability limit power available can be calculated using the formula Pmax = E^2/X, where E is the excitation voltage and X is the synchronous reactance of the generator. In this case, with an excitation voltage of 1.52 pu and a stability margin of

## 1. What is an electrical power system?

An electrical power system is a network of electrical components that work together to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity to consumers. This includes power plants, transformers, transmission lines, and distribution lines.

## 2. What is the purpose of an electrical power system?

The purpose of an electrical power system is to provide a reliable and safe supply of electricity to homes, businesses, and industries. It allows for the efficient transfer of electricity from power plants to consumers, meeting the demand for electricity.

## 3. How does an electrical power system work?

An electrical power system works by converting mechanical energy (from sources like coal, gas, or water) into electrical energy. This energy is then transmitted through high-voltage transmission lines to substations, where it is stepped down and distributed to homes and businesses through lower-voltage distribution lines.

## 4. What are the main components of an electrical power system?

The main components of an electrical power system include power plants, generators, transformers, transmission lines, distribution lines, and control systems. Each component plays a crucial role in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity.

## 5. What are the challenges facing electrical power systems?

Some of the main challenges facing electrical power systems include aging infrastructure, increasing demand for electricity, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally, ensuring the reliability and stability of the grid and addressing environmental concerns are also important factors to consider.

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