# What is Systems: Definition and 1000 Discussions

A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. Systems are the subjects of study of systems theory.

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1. ### How to assign signs to energy?

The gravitational potential leads to velocity in downward direction, but spring potential does in upward direction. So should these energies have different signs (plus and minus or vice-versa)?
2. ### I Question about the Zeroth law of thermodynamics and Equlibrium

I know that if 2 systems A and B are in equilibrium their coordinates doesn't change. Systems are not complicated and be fully described using two separated coordinates X and Y. What will happen if I seprate them using an adiabatic wall? Their coordinates start to change but I cannot...
3. ### A Pair of interacting systems, driven coupled harmonic oscillators

Question: I am working with a pair of systems, each of which is a system of damped, driven, coupled harmonic oscillators, and I am trying to figure out what parameters—if any—could result in each system resonating with a different frequency. I’m wondering if anyone here has any intuitions...
4. ### I Dynamics of systems of material points

I have difficulty understanding the extension of the fundamental laws of material point dynamics to systems. Example 1: Consider a system consisting of two material points. Suppose that the two forces acting on the two constitute a pair of forces of nonzero arm. The resultant of the forces...
5. ### A Stability analysis for numerical schemes of systems of PDEs

I want to solve the following system of PDEs: \frac{\partial\nu}{\partial t}=\frac{\partial u}{\partial h} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\frac{\partial}{\partial h}\left(f(\nu)\frac{\partial u}{\partial h}\right) I know the usual Fourier analysis that are applied to the stencil for single...
6. ### Thermodynamic equilibrium for systems only open to particle exchange

I am only interested in the initial equilibrium conditions, and I am struggling to convince myself whether that should correspond to the equality of chemical potentials for H2 or an equality of temperatures as well. My work is as below: We take both gases as simple ideal (this is only relevant...
7. ### I need sources to learn about dynamic systems

Hi! I have exam in couple of weeks , and now am looking for sources to learn about dynamic systems , chaotic systems and etc. My main goal is to learn characteristics of such systems , learn about special points in dynamic plane. For the most part we used to create dynamic system simulations...
8. ### A Separation of variables is possible only in 11 coordinate systems?

I vaguely (strong word there because I can no longer remember the source, but the idea sticks in my head for 30 years now) recall reading (somewhere long forgotten) that method of separation of variables is possible in only 11 coordinate systems. I list them below: 1.Cartesian coordinates...
9. ### Create a Mask-RCNN Model in Python for Smart Parking Systems

Homework Statement: I am trying to write a Python code to do a project about smart parking system. I want to create a Mask RCNN model to detect the vehicles in the parking slots. My code is attached below, I got an error in the last line (creating Mask_RCNN model) and do not know how to solve...
10. ### Using inverses to solve systems of equations

For this, Can someone please tell me where they got ##X = IX## from? Many thanks!
11. ### I Numerical Solution of Complex Systems in GR

Please help me confirm that I understand this correctly. Imagine a system comprised of two black holes orbiting each other, which will eventually merge. At any point in time we describe the stress-energy tensor of the system. Assume that we could solve the EFE's for every point (t,x,y,z). This...
12. ### Einstein relativity between 2 coordinates systems

I calculated the speed using the information provided through the above equation and finding V' = 1.2 m/s. However, the first solution must be -1,2 m/s. I don't know how to reach it, any suggestion?
13. ### I Repeated measurements on a quantum system interacting with other quantum systems

In quantum mechanics if I repeat a measurement of the same observable in succession I get the same quantum state if it is not a degenerate state. If I make the system under consideration interact with another quantum system and meanwhile keep measuring it what happens? Does the system not...
14. ### I Ways of measuring open quantum systems

At the heart of the theory of open quantum systems is the idea that the measurement statistics of many-body systems can be expressed in terms of a reduced density matrix, obtained by tracing over degrees of freedom that are irrelevant to the system of interest. In general, given a pure state...
15. ### POTW Solve Linear System of ODEs: x',y' w/ Initial Conditions x(0),y(0)

Solve the linear system of ODE ##x' = 2x + 3y##, ##y' = -3x + y## with initial conditions ##x(0) = 1, y(0) = 2##.
16. ### Questions About Systems and Their Components

I have a terminological question: should system parts defined by functional interactions or by being inside (and including) the system’s physical boundary? System components are often defined as part of a system based upon their interactions that lead to the system’s success in achieving its...
17. ### Coupled Vertical Spring-Mass Systems

How should I proceed?
18. ### How could you see an image without photons? (imaging systems)

What kind of imaging system could be used to see without photons? I ask because I was watching a video and the furthest we can see back is Redshift Z~1090 which is the CMB. We can’t see the universe before the first stars formed or the Big Bang itself. My first guess would be some kind of dark...
19. ### I Discontinuous systems? And why do we need uniqueness anyway?

Much of the theory of ordinary differential equations is based around continuous derivatives. A lot of nice theories came together with semi-group theory of linear systems and the Banach contraction theorem, but these are limited to continuous functions. Then you get into partial differential...
20. ### Analysis of systems in equilibrium: articulated structures

Figure: My attempt at a Solution: We calculate REACTIONS: $$\sum F_x=0\rightarrow \boxed{Bx=0}\qquad \sum F_y=0\rightarrow By+A=50$$ $$\sum M_B=0\rightarrow \boxed{A=25\, \textrm{kN}}\quad \boxed{B=25\, \textrm{kN}}$$ KNOT B: $$\alpha \rightarrow \alpha =90-40=50\, \textrm{º}$$ \beta...
21. ### I Systems and number of FBDs....

Hello, The system is what we define it to be. The system can include one or multiple objects. These internal objects/bodies can move relative to each other or maintain a fixed distance to form a rigid system. Everything else that is not inside the system is part of the surroundings/environment...
22. ### I Energy from quantum systems in an expanding universe?

I found a paper (https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0411299.pdf) which talks about quantum systems emitting energy due to spacetime expansion. Is this true or only a hypothesis?
23. ### I Is energy conserved during the formation of local systems?

I found an old article (https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.137.B1379) which talks about conservation of energy in an expanding space. Apparently, the author found that energy is conserved at local scales (like the motion of planets in our solar system) as one would expect, but...

25. ### Electronics Rule of thumb for derating Solar Energy off-grid energy systems

I am working on a sanity check for capacity vs load and if anyone here has experience with off-grid solar, any feedback would be much appreciated. The application is to run a fridge and a modem off-grid on a piece of land in New Mexico. I read that in December (worst case month) the area gets...
26. ### I Electric Field & Interplay between Coordinate Systems | DJ Griffiths

Hi. I believe I have what may be both a silly and or a weird query. In many Griffiths Problems based on Electric Field I have seen that a coordinate system other than Cartesian is being used; then using Cartesian the symmetry of the problem is worked out to deduce that the field is in (say) z...
27. ### For embedded systems, the highest performance levels are not always needed....

Hi, I need to clarify few points about the text quoted below. I'd appreciate it if you could help me with the queries. Source: Computer Applications to Library By Kole Lambert, Page #169 Question 1: It says, "For embedded systems, the highest performance levels are often not needed or...
28. ### A Energy Levels and Wave Functions of Identical Particle Systems

a) Find the energy levels of the ground state and the first excited state. b) Find the wave functions (in the coordinate representation) of the ground state and the first excited state. Hints: For a particle of mass m in a harmonic potential of angular frequency ω, the energy of the particle in...
29. ### Best way to self-teach Electrical Engineering and Embedded Systems?

Summary: Trying to self-teach Electrical Engineering, Embedded Linux and AVR/ARM to make a career change into embedded systems development and I need suggestions on the best way to do that. I have a plan but I honestly have no idea if its a good one. I have been into computers my whole life...
30. ### I Celestial Systems: Mass & Distribution

If two sets of objects, of similar size but different mass, were to be part of a rotating celestial system, how differently would they be distributed? Would the lower-mass objects be more diffusedly distributed, while the higher-mass objects be more concentrated toward the centre?
31. ### Angular Velocity in the Rotating systems

Summary: Consider a body which is rotating with constant angular velocity ω about some axis passing through the origin. Assume the origin is fixed, and that we are sitting in a fixed coordinate system ##O_{xyz}## If ##\rho## is a vector of constant magnitude and constant direction in the...
32. ### Engineering Systems Engineering QFD on an Aerial Fire Fighting Aircraft

Hi everyone, I am currently taking an aerospace systems engineering course and right now, the focus is on Quality Function Deployment (QFD), which is basically a method driven by customer requirements, which can capture customer requirements and systematically convert them into engineering...
33. ### Requirements and systems engineering

Hi all, I am taking a course in systems engineering and we are discussing about requirements and functional architectures. Got me wondering, for the engineers here in the aerospace, do you have any interesting examples relating to missed requirements or to requirements gathering? What about...
34. ### Calculating Force on Shaft Bearings - Hydro Power Systems

I know the moment of inertia and the rotating speed of a shaft, and the allowable vibration is 2mm/sec. How is the force calculated? What is the formula to calculate the force on the shaft bearings which are a know distance from centre of gravity? Thanks
35. ### Job Skills Tips for a Physics BS going into a systems engineering job?

I was wondered if anyone could give me some tips on what to expect going into a career in systems engineering. I completed my undergrad BS in Physics last year and I have worked as a student trainee optical engineer for two years (Intermittent schedule). I just completed my first year of grad...
36. ### Engineering Advanced control systems, state-space controllers

------------EDIT---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Check comment #7 for neater and faster explanation of the question statement --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The symbols represent: H, water...
37. ### Engineering Using method of sections to solve for truss systems

Taking the moments about points A and C, why is a distance of 3 meters used in Fhc and Fhg? Isn’t it supposed to be 1.5 meters for both? I acknowledge that Fhc and Fhg have x and y components, but were we considering the horizontal or vertical component (or both components) of either Fhc and Fhg...
38. ### Frequency Response Problem for given system

Hello, I am given an exercise in which I need to answer some questions, for this given system : y(n)=1/3[x(n)+x(n-1)] 1/ find the impulse response h(n), then H(n) 2/ calculate the magnitude ||H(n)|| and tell the nature of the filter 3/ calculate Fc which is cutoff frequency when Fe=8Khz , and...
39. ### A Propagation modes and linear systems

In the book "Fundamentals of photonics", the authors defined waveguide modes using the notion of linear systems, where they said: "Every linear system is characterized by special inputs that are invariant to the system, i.e., inputs that are not altered (except for a multiplicative constant)...
40. ### Comp Sci Intelligent agent doubt-information systems

https://uobrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10547/223815/ESWA%20agent%20paper%20-v2.pdf;jsessionid=16B243A8F6C1FC1242A75969D18D00B7?sequence=5 here is some information. I am unable to figure out which one is minimum requirement??and which one is specific requirement.
41. ### A Question about F.Reif page 66 (thermal interaction of systems)

It was described that the thermal interaction changes average energy of each system by a different amount and the external parameters do not change at all in a thermal interaction. I do not understand how energy of a system changes without a change in external parameters.
42. ### Where Do Systems Belong Among the Sciences?

Assemblies of various components can have properties as functioning systems. Systems can be composed of various kinds of components, like atoms, molecules, maybe interacting energy things, maybe bits of code, or higher level components. Since it is not linked to only a single kind of...
43. ### How can I properly study Information Systems without adequate resources?

IS stands for information system. here's the syllabus-: https://ioesolutions.esign.com.np/contents/information-systems-ct-751 here's the notes that are available for this subject-: https://ioesolutions.esign.com.np/notes/text-notes/information-systems-ct-751and there is 1 badly written book...
44. ### Comp Sci Why should we plan Information Systems?

So this is what given in book-: This is not just slide. This is exactly what is written in my book. I don't understand any of this. What I understand a bit-: Information System plan describe the structure of information system, content, of information system, how IS should be developed. IS...
45. ### Engineering Signals & Systems with Linear Algebra

Hello everyone, I would like to get some help with the above problem on signals and linear projections. Is my approach reasonable? If it is incorrect, please help. Thanks! My approach is that s3(t) ad s4(t) are both linear combinations of s1(t) and s2(t), so we need an orthonormal basis for the...
46. ### I Standard measure of distance from equilibrium for all systems

Is there a standard way to measure how far a system is displaced from equilibrium that can be applied to all physical systems? So, for example, a ball that is kicked, a spring that is stretched, a liquid that’s heated, and a charged battery are all systems that are displaced from equilibrium. I...
47. ### Linear systems: Tmax = Umax is not making sense

We have a slide in class that states if no friction or damping force, then the system is conservative. Then it shows: delta(T+U)=0 or T+U=constant. It then goes on to say that max kinetic energy is equal to max potential energy which is false. no way can you have KEmax=Pemax... I double...
48. ### Dynamical Systems: how to find equation for Poincare map?

Hi, I was attempting a question on the dynamical systems topic of Poincare maps, and was struggling to understand a certain part of it. Knowledge from prior parts of the questions: There was a system which we converted to polar coordinates to get: (## a ## is an arbitrary real constant)...
49. ### MHB Unravelling the Role of Distributed Systems in Big Data

Here are the notes in my college curriculum, which I of course understand but it doesn't make clear what is the role of distributed system in big data-...
50. ### Dynamical Systems - Chaos: Stability condition for a 2-cycle system

Hi, (This question is part of the same example as a previous post of mine, but I have a question about a different part of it) I was looking at a question from an exam for a course I am self-teaching. There is a sub-question which asks us to find the values of a parameter for which the 2-cycle...