As per my understanding, the position of most stable equilibrium of a dipole placed in a uniform electric field is when it is aligned with the field, i.e. when E and p (dipole moment) are in the same direction. Also the position of most unstable equilibrium is at the position where the dipole experiences maximum torque, i.e. where the angle between E and p is 90 deg. This understanding is contrary to the definition that the positions of stable and unstable equilibrium are in terms of the angles between E and p corresponding to the maximum and minimum potential energy of the dipole. Could you please explain this to me, as my idea of stability is related to the torque on the dipole and not to its potential energy. Many thanks.