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The attached image is from "Quantum Mechanics: A self contained course" by Atkinson and Hounkonnou.

I've seen this used a lot, and I know this is simple, but I still don't know the principle behind this. From what theorem does this method come from? Can someone give me something like a Wikipedia link please?

Thanks.

I've seen this used a lot, and I know this is simple, but I still don't know the principle behind this. From what theorem does this method come from? Can someone give me something like a Wikipedia link please?

Thanks.